Time-of-Day-Dependent Dietary Fat Consumption Influences Multiple Cardiometabolic Syndrome Parameters in Mice

Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
International journal of obesity (2005) (Impact Factor: 5). 03/2010; 34(11):1589-98. DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2010.63
Source: PubMed


Excess caloric intake is strongly associated with the development of increased adiposity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia (that is the cardiometabolic syndrome). Research efforts have focused attention primarily on the quality (that is nutritional content) and/or quantity of ingested calories as potential causes for diet-induced pathology. Despite growing acceptance that biological rhythms profoundly influence energy homeostasis, little is known regarding how the timing of nutrient ingestion influences development of common metabolic diseases.
To test the hypothesis that the time of day at which dietary fat is consumed significantly influences multiple cardiometabolic syndrome parameters.
We report that mice fed either low- or high-fat diets in a contiguous manner during the 12  h awake/active period adjust both food intake and energy expenditure appropriately, such that metabolic parameters are maintained within a normal physiologic range. In contrast, fluctuation in dietary composition during the active period (as occurs in human beings) markedly influences whole body metabolic homeostasis. Mice fed a high-fat meal at the beginning of the active period retain metabolic flexibility in response to dietary challenges later in the active period (as revealed by indirect calorimetry). Conversely, consumption of high-fat meal at the end of the active phase leads to increased weight gain, adiposity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperleptinemia (that is cardiometabolic syndrome) in mice. The latter perturbations in energy/metabolic homeostasis are independent of daily total or fat-derived calories.
The time of day at which carbohydrate versus fat is consumed markedly influences multiple cardiometabolic syndrome parameters.

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    • "). It is now well established that the temporal pattern of food consumption can profoundly affect weight gain and adiposity independent of total caloric intake (Arble et al., 2009; Bray et al., 2010; Hatori et al., 2012; Chaix et al., 2014). The increased adiposity in circadian mutant mice could also reflect increased lipid accumulation due to increased lipogenesis or decreased lipolysis, which will be discussed further below. "
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    Journal of Biological Rhythms 04/2015; 30(5). DOI:10.1177/0748730415581234 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    • "Feeding regular chow diet during daytime alters energy balance in nocturnal mice, as compared to animals fed only during the night (Bray et al., 2013). When mice are forced to eat a high-fat diet during the light phase or at the end of the night, metabolic perturbations occur, inducing increased adiposity and decreased glucose tolerance (Arble et al., 2009; Bray et al., 2010). Furthermore, restricting high-fat feeding only to the active period of animals attenuates body weight gain and improves glucose and lipid metabolism (Hatori et al., 2012; Tsai et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Most aspects of energy metabolism display clear variations during day and night. This daily rhythmicity of metabolic functions, including hormone release, is governed by a circadian system that consists of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN) and many secondary clocks in the brain and peripheral organs. The SCN control peripheral timing via the autonomic and neuroendocrine system, as well as via behavioural outputs. The sleep-wake cycle, the feeding/fasting rhythm and most hormonal rhythms, including that of leptin, ghrelin and glucocorticoids, usually show an opposite phase (relative to the light-dark cycle) in diurnal and nocturnal species. By contrast, the SCN clock is most active at the same astronomical times in these two categories of mammals. Moreover, in both species, pineal melatonin is secreted only at night. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by central and peripheral clock mechanisms. Most experimental knowledge comes from studies in nocturnal laboratory rodents. Nevertheless, we will also mention some relevant findings in diurnal mammals, including humans. It will become clear that as a consequence of the tight connections between the circadian clock system and energy metabolism, circadian clock impairments (e.g., mutations or knock-out of clock genes) and circadian clock misalignments (such as during shift work and chronic jet-lag) have an adverse effect on energy metabolism, that may trigger or enhancing obese and diabetic symptoms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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    • "Although total food intake over a period of 1 day and 1 night was reduced by 26%, SCN lesioned mice consumed more during the light part of the day compared with sham mice (46% vs. 32% of total food intake). Recently, it has been shown that mice and rats fed only during the day gained significantly more weight than mice fed only at night (35–37). In these studies, obesity resulted from dissociation between the timing of food intake and the intrinsic rhythm of energy expenditure and, thus, animals were eating “against their clock time.” "
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