Iron stores and cerebral veins in MS studied by susceptibility weighted imaging.

Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA2 Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.
International angiology: a journal of the International Union of Angiology (Impact Factor: 1.01). 04/2010; 29(2):149-57.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this paper, we seek to determine whether the iron deposition as seen by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in the basal ganglia and thalamus of patients with multiple sclerosis is greater than the iron content measured in normal subjects (individuals unaffected by multiple sclerosis). As increased iron content may result from increased venous pressure, such information would add credence to the concept of Zamboni et al (1) that MS is caused by chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.
Fourteen MS patients were recruited for this study with a mean age of 38 years ranging from 19 to 66 year-old. A velocity compensated 3D gradient echo sequence was used to generate SW images with a high sensitivity to iron content. We evaluated iron in the following structures: substantia nigra, red nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, caudate nucleus, thalamus and pulvinar thalamus. Each structure was broken into two parts, a high iron content region and a low iron content region. The measured values were compared to previously established baseline iron content in these structures as a function of age.
Twelve of fourteen patients had an increase in iron above normal levels and with a particular pattern of iron deposition in the medial venous drainage system that was associated with the confluence of the veins draining that structure.
Iron may serve as a biomarker of venous vascular damage in multiple sclerosis. The backward iron accumulation pattern seen in the basal ganglia and thalamus of most MS patients is consistent with the hypothesis of venous hypertension.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo study iron deposition in the substantia nigra (SN) and red nuclei (RN), in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and healthy controls (HC).Materials and Methods Iron deposition was assessed using susceptibility maps and T2*-w images acquired at high resolution MRI at 7 Tesla (T). Mean intensities were calculated within circular regions of interest in the SN (d/v, dorsal/ventral) and RN on high resolution T2*-w, quantitative susceptibility maps and their product for: RRMS, CIS and HC (N = 14, 21, 27, respectively).ResultsMagnetic susceptibility was significantly greater in SNd and RN in RRMS compared with HC (P = 0.04 [0.001, 0.48] and P = 0.01 [0.005, 0.05]), with intermediate values for the CIS group. 1/T2*-w did not show significant inter-group differences (for SNv, SNd, RN, respectively: P = 0.5 [−0.352, 0976], P = 0.35 [−0.208, 0.778], P = 0.16 [−0.114, 0.885] for RRMS versus HC) and the T2*-susceptibility product maps showed the difference only for RN (P = 0.01, [0.009, 0.062]). Changes were independent of EDSS and disease duration.ConclusionMR changes consistent with iron accumulation occurring in the SN and RN of CIS patients can be identified using susceptibility mapping; this may provide an additional method of monitoring early MS development.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 05/2014; · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sleep-related sensory-motor disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the lower extremities. According to many recent studies patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer frequently from symptoms of RLS. The prevalence of RLS in MS patients varies 13.3%-65.1%, which is higher than the prevalence of RLS in people of the same age in the general population. MS patients with RLS have higher scores in the Expanded Disability Status Scale compared to MS patients without RLS. Presence of RLS has a negative impact on sleep quality and fatigue of MS patients. Iron deficiency and chronic inflammation may be factors contributing to development of RLS in MS. The relationship between the course and treatment of MS and RLS requires further prospective studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Sleep Medicine Reviews 10/2014; · 9.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate age-related iron deposition changes in healthy subjects and Alzheimer disease patients using susceptibility weighted imaging. The study recruited 182 people, including 143 healthy volunteers and 39 Alzheimer disease patients. All underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging and susceptibility weighted imaging sequences. The groups were divided according to age. Phase images were used to investigate iron deposition in the bilateral head of the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen, and the angle radian value was calculated. We hypothesized that age-related iron deposition changes may be different between Alzheimer disease patients and controls of the same age, and that susceptibility weighted imaging would be a more sensitive method of iron deposition quantification. The results revealed that iron deposition in the globus pallidus increased with age, up to 40 years. In the head of the caudate nucleus, iron deposition peaked at 60 years. There was a general increasing trend with age in the putamen, up to 50-70 years old. There was significant difference between the control and Alzheimer disease groups in the bilateral globus pallidus in both the 60-70 and 70-80 year old group comparisons. In conclusion, iron deposition increased with age in the globus pallidus, the head of the caudate nucleus and putamen, reaching a plateau at different ages. Furthermore, comparisons between the control and Alzheimer disease group revealed that iron deposition changes were more easily detected in the globus pallidus.
    Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 04/2014; · 1.36 Impact Factor

Preview (2 Sources)

1 Download
Available from