Use of neck magnetic resonance venography, Doppler sonography and selective venography for diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a pilot study in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls.
ABSTRACT Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a vascular condition characterized by anomalies of primary veins outside the skull that restrict normal outflow of blood from the brain. CCSVI was recently described as highly prevalent in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and can be non-invasively diagnosed by Doppler sonography (DS) and invasively by selective venography (SV). The aim of this paper was to investigate the value of neck magnetic resonance venography (MRV) for the diagnosis of CCSVI compared to DS and SV in patients with MS and in healthy controls (HC).
Ten MS patients and 7 HC underwent DS, 2D-Time-Of-Flight venography (TOF) and 3D-Time Resolved Imaging of Contrast Kinetics angiography (TRICKS). MS patients also underwent SV. The internal jugular veins (IJVs) and the vertebral veins (VVs) were assessed by both MRV sequences, and the findings were validated against SV and DS. SV has been considered the diagnostic gold standard for MS patients.
All MS patients and none of the HC presented CCSVI, according to the DS criteria. This was confirmed by SV. For CCSVI diagnosis, DS showed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of 100%, whereas the figures were 40%, 85%, 58%, 80% and 50% for 3D-TRICKS, and 30%, 85%, 52%, 75% and 46% for 2D-TOF in the IJVs. In MS patients, compared to SV, DS showed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of 100%, 75%, 95%, 94% and 100%, whereas the figures were 31%, 100%, 45%, 100% and 26% for 3D-TRICKS and 25%, 100%, 40%, 100% and 25% for 2D-TOF in the IJVs.
The use of MRV for diagnosis of CCSVI in MS patients has limited value, and the findings should be interpreted with caution and confirmed by other imaging techniques such as DS and SV.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND To determine if extracranial venous structural and flow abnormalities exist in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).METHODS Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the anatomy and function of major veins in the neck in 138 MS patients and 67 healthy controls (HC). Time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) was used to assess stenosis while 2-dimensional phase-contrast flow quantification was used to assess flow at the C2/C3 and C5/C6 levels. Venous flow was normalized to the total arterial flow. The MS patients were divided into stenotic (ST) and nonstenotic (NST) groups based on MRA assessment, and each group was compared to the HC group in anatomy and flow.RESULTSThe MS group showed lower normalized internal jugular vein (IJV) blood flow (tIJV/tA) than the HC group (P < .001). In the MS group, 72 (52%) were classified as ST while 66 (48%) were NST. In the HC group, 11 (23%) were ST while 37 (77%) were NST. The ST-MS group had lower IJV flow than both HC and NST-MS groups.CONCLUSION After categorizing the MS population into two groups based upon anatomical stenosis, as determined from an absolute quantification of IJV cross section, clear differences in IJV flow between the ST-MS and HC samples became evident. Despite the unknown etiology of MS, abnormal venous flow was noted in a distinct group of MS patients compared to HC.Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/jon.12183 · 1.82 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Extracranial venous stenosis (EVS) has recently been implicated as the primary cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of EVS in MS patients. We performed selective extracranial venography on 42 patients with early MS (EMS): clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) of less than 5 years duration, and late MS (LMS): RRMS of more than 10 years duration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical relapse data were reviewed for all patients with EVS. EVS was present in 7/29 patients with EMS and 12/13 patients with LMS, a highly significant statistical difference (p< 0.001). Only 3/42 patients (all in the LMS group) had two vessel stenoses, while the rest had only one vessel involved. EVS was seen in 1/11 patients with CIS compared with 6/18 RRMS patients of less than 5 years duration. Disease duration was greater in patients with EVS overall (p < 0.005). LMS remained an independent predictor of EVS following multivariate adjustment for gender, age at disease onset and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 29 (3-298); p = 0.005]. Within the EMS group, patients with (n = 7) and without (n = 22) EVS had similar EDSS and disease duration, suggesting similar disease severity. No clear correlation could be found between site of EVS and anatomic localization of either clinical relapses or MRI gadolinium-enhancing lesions. We conclude that EVS is an unlikely cause of MS since it is not present in most patients early in the disease and rarely involves more than one extracranial vein. It is likely to be a late secondary phenomenon.Multiple Sclerosis 11/2010; 16(11):1341-8. DOI:10.1177/1352458510385268 · 4.86 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with not well understood etiology. Recently, a possible association of MS with compromised venous outflow from the brain and spinal cord has been studied (chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency - CCSVI). Angioplasties of internal jugular veins (IJV) and azygous vein (AV) have given promising results, with improvements in patients' clinical status. 830 patients with clinically defined MS were scanned from the level of sigmoid sinuses to the junction with brachiocephalic veins, as well as at the level of AV. T2-weighted, 2D TOF and FIESTA sequences were used. The examination revealed a slower blood flow in IJVs, in 98% of patients: on the right side - in 6%, on the left side - in 15%, on both sides with right-side predominance - in 22%, on both sides with left-side predominance - in 34%, bilaterally with no side predominance - in 19%. In 2%, there was a slower blood flow in IJVs, vertebral veins and subclavian veins and also in the left brachiocephalic vein. Moreover, in 5% of patients there was a decreased blood flow in the azygous vein. Abnormal flow pattern in IJVs is more common on the left side. Less often it can be found in azygous vein and in brachiocephalic veins. Further research is needed to investigate the significance of CCSVI in MS patients. The protocol we described can be used for most of modern magnetic resonance units.03/2011; 76(1):59-62.