Article

Use of neck magnetic resonance venography, Doppler sonography and selective venography for diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: A pilot study in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls

The Jacobs Neurological Institute, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA.
International angiology: a journal of the International Union of Angiology (Impact Factor: 1.01). 04/2010; 29(2):127-39.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a vascular condition characterized by anomalies of primary veins outside the skull that restrict normal outflow of blood from the brain. CCSVI was recently described as highly prevalent in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and can be non-invasively diagnosed by Doppler sonography (DS) and invasively by selective venography (SV). The aim of this paper was to investigate the value of neck magnetic resonance venography (MRV) for the diagnosis of CCSVI compared to DS and SV in patients with MS and in healthy controls (HC).
Ten MS patients and 7 HC underwent DS, 2D-Time-Of-Flight venography (TOF) and 3D-Time Resolved Imaging of Contrast Kinetics angiography (TRICKS). MS patients also underwent SV. The internal jugular veins (IJVs) and the vertebral veins (VVs) were assessed by both MRV sequences, and the findings were validated against SV and DS. SV has been considered the diagnostic gold standard for MS patients.
All MS patients and none of the HC presented CCSVI, according to the DS criteria. This was confirmed by SV. For CCSVI diagnosis, DS showed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of 100%, whereas the figures were 40%, 85%, 58%, 80% and 50% for 3D-TRICKS, and 30%, 85%, 52%, 75% and 46% for 2D-TOF in the IJVs. In MS patients, compared to SV, DS showed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of 100%, 75%, 95%, 94% and 100%, whereas the figures were 31%, 100%, 45%, 100% and 26% for 3D-TRICKS and 25%, 100%, 40%, 100% and 25% for 2D-TOF in the IJVs.
The use of MRV for diagnosis of CCSVI in MS patients has limited value, and the findings should be interpreted with caution and confirmed by other imaging techniques such as DS and SV.

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    • "Hojnacki et al. assessed 10 MS patients and 7 healthy controls and observed CCSVI in all MS patients and none of the healthy controls, according to the Doppler sonography criteria [18]. Centonze and colleagues also did not find a relationship between CCSVI and MS, reporting that the tendency for CCSVI occurrence was the same in patients and control group and also suggest that any possible stricture in the IJV is for compensation of disease process in the patients [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a newly suggested cause for multiple sclerosis (MS) detected by color-coded Doppler sonography. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between CCSVI and MS compared to the control group.Methods The study was performed on 84 MS patients and 115 healthy subjects. The presence of at least two of the extra- and/or intra-cranial Zamboni's criteria was considered positive for evidence of CCSVI.ResultsAlthough the total number of MS patients with any detectable CCSVI criterion was significantly higher than the controls (22.6% vs. 10.4%, P = 0.019), only one out of 84 patients fulfilled the Zamboni's criteria (1.2% vs. none, P = 0.422).Conclusion Our results do not support the presence of a relationship between MS and CCSVI criteria defined by Zamboni.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a term used to describe impaired venous drainage from the central nervous system (CNS) caused by abnormalities in anatomy and flow affecting the extracranial veins. Recently, it has been proposed that CCSVI may contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is hypothesized that venous obstruction results in abnormal flow that promotes inflammation at the blood-brain barrier and that this triggers a process marked by a disturbance of homeostasis within the CNS that leads to demyelination and neurodegeneration. The venous abnormalities of CCSVI are often diagnosed by ultrasound or magnetic resonance venography, however the prevalence of CCSVI detailed in groups of MS patients and patients without MS varies widely in published reports. Increased standardization of diagnostic studies to evaluate both anatomical and physiological findings associated with CCSVI is needed. The purpose of this article is to provide a background to understand the development of the theory of CCSVI and to frame the relevant issues regarding its diagnosis and relationship to the pathogenesis of MS.
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