Efficacy of exercise in reducing depressive symptoms across 5-HTTLPR genotypes.

University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise (Impact Factor: 4.48). 03/2010; 42(11):2141-7. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181de7d51
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Exercise is effective in the alleviation of depressive symptoms and may have physiological effects similar to those of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Recent research has identified the difference in treatment effects across genetic polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), in which the l allele has been associated with a better response to SSRI compared with the s allele. The purpose of the current research was to examine the antidepressant effects of exercise across 5-HTTLPR genotypes.
Participants, ages 18–23 yr, were randomly assigned to a 5-wk exercise intervention or a no-treatment control group. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory before and after the intervention and provided a saliva sample for DNA analysis.
Exercise resulted in a significant reduction in depressive symptoms compared with the control group. In addition, individuals with at least one l allele demonstrated greater reductions in depressive symptoms compared with ss individuals.
The effects of exercise on depressive symptoms appear to be moderated by 5-HTTLPR genotype, suggesting that the mechanisms responsible for the alleviation of depressive symptoms are similar for exercise and SSRI treatment. Furthermore, these findings suggest that 5-HTTLPR genotype should be a factor in determining the proper line of treatment for depression.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to: (1) compare the association between various levels of physical activity (PA) and mortality; and (2) examine the potential modifying effect of depressive symptoms on the PA-mortality associations. Previous large scale randomized studies rarely assess the association in conjunction with modifying effects of depressive symptoms. In this study, participants consisted of 624 (mean age = 77.35 years) non-institutionalized elderly from the Americans' Changing Lives Longitudinal Study. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale. Participants in gardening, walking, and sports were first classified into four PA frequency levels, "never," "rarely," "sometimes," and "often." Those who self-reported "often" engaged in activities of gardening and walking and had reduced odds of mortality of 77% and 83%, adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) = .23 and .17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = .09-.59 and.07-.41 when compared to those who reported "never." However, mortality risk was not linked to sports activity. The modifying effects of depressive symptoms on PA (depressive symptoms x PA) were then tested, PA was not associated with increased risk for mortality for gardening (parameter estimates, PE = -.03 +/- .62, p = .958), and for walking (PE = .04 +/- .57, p = .948). Elderly people who engaged in gardening and walking might have protection effects on later risk of mortality. Depressive symptoms showed negative modifying effects that prevent PA predicting later mortality.
    The International Journal of Aging and Human Development 01/2013; 76(2):165-79. DOI:10.2190/AG.76.2.d · 0.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Smoking is significantly more common among persons with major depressive disorders (MDDs). Furthermore, smokers with MDD report more difficulties when they quit smoking (greater withdrawal symptoms, higher probability of relapse). The aim of this narrative review is to describe research on exercise and depression and exercise and smoking cessation. METHODS: We have critically reviewed various smoking cessation intervention programs for depressive smokers examining (a) the protective effect of exercise against relapse for smokers with MDD and (b) the benefits of exercise for treating withdrawal symptoms. We have also reviewed the current literature investigating the mechanisms between exercise-depression and exercise-smoking. RESULTS: This review suggests that exercise may reduce depressive symptoms following cessation and provide a useful strategy for managing withdrawal symptoms in smokers with MDD. Various psychological, biological, and genetic hypotheses have been tested (e.g., distraction hypothesis, expectations hypothesis, cortisol hypothesis) and few have obtained significant results. CONCLUSIONS: It might be beneficial for health professionals to recommend physical activity and promote supervised exercise sessions for smokers with MDD during smoking cessation. Future research needs to examine relationships between exercise, smoking, and depression with transdisciplinary and ecological momentary assessment.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 03/2013; 15(10). DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntt042 · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Little is known about how physical activity patterns during childhood and adolescence are associated with risk of subsequent depression. We examined prospective and retrospective associations between leisure physical activity patterns from childhood to adulthood and risk of clinical depression in young adulthood. Participants (759 males, 871 females) in a national survey, aged 9-15 years, were re-interviewed approximately 20 years later. Leisure physical activity was self-reported at baseline (1985) and follow-up (2004-2006). To bridge the interval between the two time-points, historical leisure activity from age 15 years to adulthood was self-reported retrospectively at follow-up. Physical activity was categorized into groups that, from a public health perspective, compared patterns that were least beneficial (persistently inactive) with those increasingly beneficial (decreasing, increasing and persistently active). Depression (major depressive or dysthymic disorder) was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Compared with those persistently inactive, males who were increasingly and persistently active had a 69 and 65 % reduced risk of depression in adulthood, respectively (all p < 0.05). In retrospective analyses, females who were persistently active had a 51 % reduced risk of depression in adulthood (p = 0.01). Similar but non-significant trends were observed for leisure physical activity in females and historical leisure activity in males. Results excluded those with childhood onset of depression and were adjusted for various sociodemographic and health covariates. Findings from both prospective and retrospective analyses indicate a beneficial effect of habitual discretionary physical activity since childhood on risk of depression in young adulthood.
    Social Psychiatry 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00127-014-0863-7 · 2.05 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Oct 10, 2014