Article

Toll-like receptor-induced changes in glycolytic metabolism regulate dendritic cell activation

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 03/2010; 115(23):4742-9. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2009-10-249540
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DCs) are key regulators of innate and acquired immunity. The maturation of DCs is directed by signal transduction events downstream of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and other pattern recognition receptors. Here, we demonstrate that, in mouse DCs, TLR agonists stimulate a profound metabolic transition to aerobic glycolysis, similar to the Warburg metabolism displayed by cancer cells. This metabolic switch depends on the phosphatidyl inositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, is antagonized by the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and is required for DC maturation. The metabolic switch induced by DC activation is antagonized by the antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. Our data pinpoint TLR-mediated metabolic conversion as essential for DC maturation and function and reveal it as a potential target for intervention in the control of excessive inflammation and inappropriately regulated immune responses.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Jie Sun, Jun 18, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
157 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A growing body of recent studies bring into light an important crosstalk between immune response and metabolism not only at the level of the organism as a whole, but also at the level of the individual cells. Cellular bioenergetics functions not only as a power plant to fuel up the cells, but the intermediate metabolites are shown to play an important role to modulate cellular responses. It is especially the pathways through which a cell metabolizes glucose that have been recently shown to influence both innate and adaptive immune responses, with oxidative phosphorylation used by resting or tolerant cells, while aerobic glycolysis (also termed ‘Warburg effect’) fueling activated cells. In this review we will address how the center metabolism shifts upon activation in the innate immune cells and how the intermediates metabolites modulate the function of immune cells.
    Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews 12/2014; 25(6). DOI:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2014.06.008 · 6.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence accumulating over the past decade has linked alterations in bioenergetic metabolism to the pathogenesis of several diseases, including inflammatory conditions and cancer. However, the mutual relationship between the effector functions and the metabolism of immune cells has begun to emerge only recently. Similar to malignant cells, both innate and adaptive immune cells undergo a metabolic reprogramming that is required for effector functions, de facto underlying the elicitation of a robust immune response. These changes allow immune cells not only to rapidly respond to pathogens or (pre)malignant cells but also to adapt to changing microenvironmental conditions. Targeting the metabolic alterations of malignant cells has been the subject of an intense wave of investigation, resulting in the identification of promising therapeutic strategies. Since the inflammatory milieu and the tumor microenvironment are similar, the metabolism of immune cells and its regulation has recently come under renewed interest as a target for immunotherapy. Here, we describe different tools and techniques to study the bioenergetic metabolism of cultured cells, using immune cells as a model. Our methodological approach relies on an extracellular flux analyzer, an instrument that enables the real-time measurement of the two central pathways used by living cells to generate adenosine triphosphate: glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. This instrument and similar technological innovations have transformed the study of cellular metabolism, unveiling its profound impact on various immunologic and oncological disorders.
    Methods in Enzymology 01/2014; 542:125-49. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-416618-9.00007-8 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immune cells are somewhat unique in that activation responses can alter quantitative phenotypes upwards of 100,000-fold. To date little is known about the metabolic adaptations necessary to mount such dramatic phenotypic shifts. Screening for novel regulators of macrophage activation, we found nonprotein kinases of glucose metabolism among the most enriched classes of candidate immune modulators. We find that one of these, the carbohydrate kinase-like protein CARKL, is rapidly downregulated in vitro and in vivo upon LPS stimulation in both mice and humans. Interestingly, CARKL catalyzes an orphan reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway, refocusing cellular metabolism to a high-redox state upon physiological or artificial downregulation. We find that CARKL-dependent metabolic reprogramming is required for proper M1- and M2-like macrophage polarization and uncover a rate-limiting requirement for appropriate glucose flux in macrophage polarization.
    Cell metabolism 06/2012; 15(6):813-26. DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2012.04.023 · 16.75 Impact Factor