25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status of Healthy, Low-Income, Minority Children in Atlanta, Georgia

Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, 2015 Uppergate Dr, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 03/2010; 125(4):633-9. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-1928
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The goals were to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among minority children in a southern US city, to examine differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between non-Hispanic black and Hispanic children, and to determine dietary sources of vitamin D.
Low-income, minority children (N = 290; mean age: 2.5 +/- 1.2 years) were recruited during well-child clinic visits. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels were measured and dietary information was assessed.
The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) level was 26.2 +/- 7.6 ng/mL, whereas 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) was not detected. Overall, 22.3% of children had deficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) levels (< or =20 ng/mL), 73.6% had less-than-optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (< or =30 ng/mL), and 1.4% had low serum calcium levels (< or =9 mg/dL). A significantly larger proportion of non-Hispanic black children, compared with Hispanic children, had vitamin D deficiency (26% vs 18%; P < .05). Age and season of recruitment were significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency and low serum calcium levels. Older children (> or =3 years) were less likely to have vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio [OR]: 0.89 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.96]; P < .001). Study enrollment during spring and summer reduced the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency by approximately 20% (spring, OR: 0.85 [95% CI: 0.73-0.98]; P = .03; summer, OR: 0.82 [95% CI: 0.73-0.92]; P < .01). Fortified milk provided most dietary vitamin D (62%), with Hispanic children reporting greater intake.
Suboptimal vitamin D status was common among apparently healthy, low-income, minority children. Age and season were significant predictors of vitamin D deficiency.


Available from: Conrad R Cole, Jun 12, 2015
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