Age, menopause, and cardiovascular risk factors among korean middle-aged women: the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
ABSTRACT This study examined the effects of menopause and age on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a nationally representative sample of middle-aged Korean women.
This study used the data of 1169 perimenopausal Korean women (mean age 50.1 +/- 7.2 years, 44% postmenopausal) from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Menopausal status was confirmed by self-reports. Risk factors of CVD included reported lifestyle characteristics (smoking, physical activity level, and dietary and alcohol intake) and measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and serum lipid levels. Sociodemographic characteristics and general health conditions were assessed by interviews. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression models were used to assess the effects of age and menopause on various CVD risk factors.
The mean age of natural menopause in Korean women was 50.2 +/- 3.7 years. Lifestyle risk factors of CVD were not significantly different by menopausal status or age except the percent of energy intake from fat, which decreased by menopause and age. Waist circumference increased with both age and menopause; blood pressure was elevated only with age, and serum lipids were associated only with menopausal status. However, fasting serum glucose was not related to either age or menopausal status.
This study showed the increasing CVD risk burdens with menopause and aging in Korean middle-aged women. More study is warranted to better understand ways to attenuate the deleterious changes.