Prospective Reciprocal Relations Between Physical Activity and Depression in Female Adolescents

Department of Psychological Services, Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55102, USA.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.85). 04/2010; 78(2):268-72. DOI: 10.1037/a0018793
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical activity.
Data from a longitudinal study involving annual assessments of 496 adolescent girls (mean age = 13 years, SD = 0.73) followed over a 6-year period were analyzed to address these questions.
Using analyses that controlled for several covariates, we found that physical activity significantly reduced risk for future increases in depressive symptoms and risk for onset of major-minor depression. Further, depressive symptoms and major-minor depression significantly reduced future physical activity. However, predictive effects were modest for both.
Results support a bidirectional relation between exercise and depression and imply that interventions that increase physical activity may reduce risk for depression among this high-risk population.

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Available from: Kerri Boutelle, Sep 03, 2015
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    • "Further, depression symptoms often include motor delay and low energy, both of which may affect the ability to engage in PA (Jerstad et al., 2010). There has been indirect evidence from longitudinal studies to support these associations (Brunet et al., 2013; Jerstad et al., 2010). Little is known about mechanisms that may underpin the association between depression and PA. "
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    ABSTRACT: To test if motivational regulations (i.e., amotivation, external, introjected, identified, intrinsic) mediate the association between depression symptoms and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in young adults.
    Preventive Medicine 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.05.017 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Consonant with theoretical predictions and suggesting the motivation to engage in physical activity was more emotional integrated, between arm analyses revealed participants in the intervention arm to report significant improvements in experienced anxiety symptoms at 6-months beyond those seen in the standard provision arm. Research has indicated that negative emotional states are predictive of decreases in subsequent levels of physical activity [53]. Thus, it would have been interesting to examine whether the improved mental health observed for intervention participants at 6 months (when contrasted to standard provision controls) would have translated into significantly greater physical activity engagement at 9 and 12 months and beyond. "
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    ABSTRACT: The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK has recommended that the effectiveness of ongoing exercise referral schemes to promote physical activity should be examined in research trials. Recent empirical evidence in health care and physical activity promotion contexts provides a foundation for testing the feasibility and impact of a Self Determination Theory-based (SDT) exercise referral consultation. An exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial comparing standard provision exercise referral with an exercise referral intervention grounded in Self Determination Theory. Individuals (N=347) referred to an exercise referral scheme were recruited into the trial from 13 centres. Outcomes and processes of change measured at baseline, 3 and 6-months: Minutes of self-reported moderate or vigorous physical activity (PA) per week (primary outcome), health status, positive and negative indicators of emotional well-being, anxiety, depression, quality of life (QOL), vitality, and perceptions of autonomy support from the advisor, need satisfaction (3 and 6 months only), intentions to be active, and motivational regulations for exercise. Blood pressure and weight were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Perceptions of the autonomy support provided by the health and fitness advisor (HFA) did not differ by arm. Between group changes over the 6-months revealed significant differences for reported anxiety only. Within arm contrasts revealed significant improvements in anxiety and most of the Dartmouth CO-OP domains in the SDT arm at 6 months, which were not seen in the standard exercise referral group. A process model depicting hypothesized relationships between advisor autonomy support, need satisfaction and more autonomous motivation, enhanced well being and PA engagement at follow up was supported. Significant gains in physical activity and improvements in quality of life and well-being outcomes emerged in both the standard provision exercise referral and the SDT-based intervention at programme end. At 6-months, observed between arm and within intervention arm differences for indicators of emotional health, and the results of the process model, were in line with SDT. The challenges in optimising recruitment and implementation of SDT-based training in the context of health and leisure services are discussed. Trial Registration: The trial is registered as Current Controlled trials ISRCTN07682833. Key Words: exercise on referral, physical activity promotion, Self Determination Theory, autonomy support, autonomous motivation, need satisfaction, subjective vitality, Dartmouth CO-OP Charts.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 01/2014; 11(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-11-10 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    • "Low PA has also been related to higher depressive symptoms in cross-sectional (Motl et al., 2004) and prospective (Birkeland et al., 2009; Rothon et al., 2010) studies. Additionally, Jerstad et al. (2010) reported significant reciprocal effects between PA and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Few studies have examined depressive symptoms during adolescence inhibiting PA in young adulthood. "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Examine depressive symptom trajectories during adolescence as predictors of physical activity (PA) in young adulthood. METHODS: Adolescents residing in Montreal, Canada (n=860) reported their depressive symptoms every 3-4months during high school in 20 data collections. Three years later, participants reported engaging in moderate and vigorous intensity PA and team sports participation. Trajectories of depressive symptoms were estimated using latent growth modeling and examined as predictors of PA outcomes. RESULTS: Three depression symptoms trajectory groups were identified during adolescence: low and declining depressive symptom scores (group 1; 37.8%); moderate and stable depressive symptom scores (group 2; 41.6%); and high increasing depressive symptom scores (group 3; 20.6%). In multivariable analyses, group 2 and group 3 participated in less moderate-intensity PA and were less likely to participate in team sports compared to group 1. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of examining intensity and type of PA as outcomes of depressive symptoms is highlighted. Targeted approaches are needed to encourage adolescents with moderate to high depression symptoms to engage in PA and team sports to improve their health and wellbeing.
    Preventive Medicine 02/2013; 56(2):95-98. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.11.013 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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