Prospective Reciprocal Relations Between Physical Activity and Depression in Female Adolescents

Department of Psychological Services, Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55102, USA.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.85). 04/2010; 78(2):268-72. DOI: 10.1037/a0018793
Source: PubMed


Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical activity.
Data from a longitudinal study involving annual assessments of 496 adolescent girls (mean age = 13 years, SD = 0.73) followed over a 6-year period were analyzed to address these questions.
Using analyses that controlled for several covariates, we found that physical activity significantly reduced risk for future increases in depressive symptoms and risk for onset of major-minor depression. Further, depressive symptoms and major-minor depression significantly reduced future physical activity. However, predictive effects were modest for both.
Results support a bidirectional relation between exercise and depression and imply that interventions that increase physical activity may reduce risk for depression among this high-risk population.

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Available from: Kerri Boutelle, Oct 02, 2015
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    • "Low physical activity and cardiovascular fitness predict depressive disorder (Aberg et al., 2012; Mikkelsen et al., 2010). Longitudinal studies suggest that the relationship between physical activity and depression is bidirectional (Azevedo Da Silva et al., 2012; Jerstad et al., 2010). Meta-analyses show that physical exercise used as a therapeutic intervention may have moderate size effects on depressive symptoms (Cooney et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with decreased physical activity and increased rates of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Exercise training has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome factors. Therefore, our study aimed at examining whether patients receiving an exercise program as an adjunct to inpatient treatment will benefit in terms of physiological and psychological factors. Fourty-two inpatients with moderate to severe depression were included. Twenty-two patients were randomized to additional 3x weekly exercise training (EXERCISE) and compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Exercise capacity was assessed as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and workload expressed as Watts (W). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to NCEP ATPIII panel criteria. After 6 weeks of treatment, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, VAT, Watt), waist circumference and HDL cholesterol were significantly improved in EXERCISE participants. Treatment response expressed as ≥50% MADRS reduction was more frequent in the EXERCISE group. Adjunctive exercise training in depressed inpatients improves physical fitness, MetS factors, and psychological outcome. Given the association of depression with cardiometablic disorders, exercise training is recommended as an adjunct to standard antidepressant treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2015; 177C:1-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.006 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Further, depression symptoms often include motor delay and low energy, both of which may affect the ability to engage in PA (Jerstad et al., 2010). There has been indirect evidence from longitudinal studies to support these associations (Brunet et al., 2013; Jerstad et al., 2010). Little is known about mechanisms that may underpin the association between depression and PA. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To test if motivational regulations (i.e., amotivation, external, introjected, identified, and intrinsic) mediate the association between depression symptoms and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in young adults. Method: A total of 319 young adults from Montreal, Quebec participating in the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study provided self-report data on depression symptoms at age 20 (SD=0.7 years) and motivational regulations at age 24 (SD=0.7 years). MVPA was assessed using a self-report questionnaire at age 20 (i.e., at the same time motivation was measured) and using accelerometers one month later. Multiple mediation analysis with bootstrapping was employed to analyze the data. Results: Controlling for age, sex and self-reported MVPA at age 20 years; introjected regulation was a significant mediator of the association between depression symptoms and MVPA (R(2) adj=0.12; point estimate=-0.0011; BCa CI=-0.15 to -0.01). Conclusion: Depression symptoms may undermine controlling forms of motivation, resulting in decreased MVPA. Intervention strategies may be needed to address depression symptoms in young adults to promote sustained MVPA.
    Preventive Medicine 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.05.017 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Consonant with theoretical predictions and suggesting the motivation to engage in physical activity was more emotional integrated, between arm analyses revealed participants in the intervention arm to report significant improvements in experienced anxiety symptoms at 6-months beyond those seen in the standard provision arm. Research has indicated that negative emotional states are predictive of decreases in subsequent levels of physical activity [53]. Thus, it would have been interesting to examine whether the improved mental health observed for intervention participants at 6 months (when contrasted to standard provision controls) would have translated into significantly greater physical activity engagement at 9 and 12 months and beyond. "
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    ABSTRACT: The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK has recommended that the effectiveness of ongoing exercise referral schemes to promote physical activity should be examined in research trials. Recent empirical evidence in health care and physical activity promotion contexts provides a foundation for testing the feasibility and impact of a Self Determination Theory-based (SDT) exercise referral consultation. An exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial comparing standard provision exercise referral with an exercise referral intervention grounded in Self Determination Theory. Individuals (N=347) referred to an exercise referral scheme were recruited into the trial from 13 centres. Outcomes and processes of change measured at baseline, 3 and 6-months: Minutes of self-reported moderate or vigorous physical activity (PA) per week (primary outcome), health status, positive and negative indicators of emotional well-being, anxiety, depression, quality of life (QOL), vitality, and perceptions of autonomy support from the advisor, need satisfaction (3 and 6 months only), intentions to be active, and motivational regulations for exercise. Blood pressure and weight were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Perceptions of the autonomy support provided by the health and fitness advisor (HFA) did not differ by arm. Between group changes over the 6-months revealed significant differences for reported anxiety only. Within arm contrasts revealed significant improvements in anxiety and most of the Dartmouth CO-OP domains in the SDT arm at 6 months, which were not seen in the standard exercise referral group. A process model depicting hypothesized relationships between advisor autonomy support, need satisfaction and more autonomous motivation, enhanced well being and PA engagement at follow up was supported. Significant gains in physical activity and improvements in quality of life and well-being outcomes emerged in both the standard provision exercise referral and the SDT-based intervention at programme end. At 6-months, observed between arm and within intervention arm differences for indicators of emotional health, and the results of the process model, were in line with SDT. The challenges in optimising recruitment and implementation of SDT-based training in the context of health and leisure services are discussed. Trial Registration: The trial is registered as Current Controlled trials ISRCTN07682833. Key Words: exercise on referral, physical activity promotion, Self Determination Theory, autonomy support, autonomous motivation, need satisfaction, subjective vitality, Dartmouth CO-OP Charts.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 01/2014; 11(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-11-10 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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