El Paleolítico medio en Europa Central
ABSTRACT This article summarises the Middle Palaeolithic of Central Europe, reflecting our present state of knowledge and current questions En este artículo el autor presenta un estado de la cuestión sobre los estudios llevados a cabo en el Centro de Europa el Paleolítico medio. Paleólitico Medio, Centro de Europa, Cronología del Pleistoceno Medio y Superior.
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ABSTRACT: A human lower right deciduous second molar was discovered in 1984 at the entrance of Trou de l'Abîme at Couvin (Belgium). In subsequent years the interpretation of this fossil remained difficult for various reasons: (1) the lack of taxonomically diagnostic elements which would support its attribution to either Homo (sapiens) neanderthalensis or H. s. sapiens; (2) the absence of any reliable chronostratigraphic interpretation of the sedimentary sequence of the site; (3) the contradiction between archaeological interpretations, which attributed the lithic industry to a transitional facies between the Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic, and the radiocarbon date of 46,820+/-3,290BP obtained from animal bone remains associated with the tooth and the flint tools. Thanks to recent progress regarding these three aspects, the tooth from Trou de l'Abîme may now be studied in detail. Analyses of the morphology and enamel thickness of the fossil yielded diagnostic characters consistent with an attribution to Neandertals. Re-examination of the lithic industry of Couvin shows that it corresponds to the late Middle Palaeolithic rather than a transitional facies. Furthermore, a new analysis of the site stratigraphy indicates that the unit situated above the archaeological layer in which the tooth was found is probably a palaeosol of brown soil type. Comparison with the regional cave sequences as well as with the reference sequence from the Belgian loess belt tends to show that the most recent palaeosol of this type is dated between 42,000 and 40,000BP. This is consistent with both a recently obtained AMS result at 44,500BP and the published conventional date.Journal of Human Evolution 11/2009; 58(1):56-67. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biśnik Cave is situated in the limestone rock, 7 m above the bottom of the presently dry Wodąca valley. It is located in the Smoleń–Niegowonice Range in the southern part of the Częstochowa Upland. To date, an area of 260 m2 has been explored, to the depth of 150–850 cm. The results of sedimentological, geomorphological, palaeozoological and archaeological investigations provided the basis for the reconstruction of the history of habitation at the Biśnik Cave, in the background of palaeoenvironmenal transformations. Throughout about 300,000 years of occupation, the cave was surrounded by a changing and widely diversified natural environment, with steppe, tundra and forest ecosystems, and marshland and aquatic biotopes. This, combined with the opportunity to exploit varied ecological niches, made the cave a particularly attractive habitation site. As a result, the cave has remnants of a number of habitation phases: ten in the Middle Palaeolithic, one in the Upper Palaeolithic and at least five in the period between the Neolithic and the Middle Ages.The importance of the Biśnik Cave stems from the fact that it has the longest sequence of cave sediments in Poland, seventeen cultural levels including remnants of the oldest Palaeolithic in this part of Europe and the oldest dwelling structures ever discovered in Poland. The history of environment changes was reconstructed based on sedimentological and palaeozoological data. The multiproxy palaeoecology and climatology data are extremely significant for the reconstruction of palaeogeography of Central Europe in the Middle and Upper Pleistocene as well as human occupation history.Quaternary International 01/2010; 220:5-30. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The earliest known personal ornaments come from the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, c. 75,000 years ago, and are associated with anatomically modern humans. In Europe, such items are not recorded until after 45,000 radiocarbon years ago, in Neandertal-associated contexts that significantly predate the earliest evidence, archaeological or paleontological, for the immigration of modern humans; thus, they represent either independent invention or acquisition of the concept by long-distance diffusion, implying in both cases comparable levels of cognitive capability and performance. The emergence of figurative art postdates c. 32,000 radiocarbon years ago, several millennia after the time of Neandertal/modern human contact. These temporal patterns suggest that the emergence of “behavioral modernity” was triggered by demographic and social processes and is not a species-specific phenomenon; a corollary of these conclusions is that the corresponding genetic and cognitive basis must have been present in the genus Homo before the evolutionary split between the Neandertal and modern human lineages.Journal of Archaeological Research 02/2007; 15(1):1-54.