Article

Pathogenic Vibrio activate NLRP3 inflammasome via cytotoxins and TLR/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-mediated NF-kappa B signaling.

Division of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 03/2010; 184(9):5287-97. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0903536
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae are Gram-negative pathogens that cause serious infectious disease in humans. The beta form of pro-IL-1 is thought to be involved in inflammatory responses and disease development during infection with these pathogens, but the mechanism of beta form of pro-IL-1 production remains poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrate that infection of mouse macrophages with two pathogenic Vibrio triggers the activation of caspase-1 via the NLRP3 inflammasome. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was mediated by hemolysins and multifunctional repeat-in-toxins produced by the pathogenic bacteria. NLRP3 activation in response to V. vulnificus infection required NF-kappaB activation, which was mediated via TLR signaling. V. cholerae-induced NLRP3 activation also required NF-kappaB activation but was independent of TLR stimulation. Studies with purified V. cholerae hemolysin revealed that toxin-stimulated NLRP3 activation was induced by TLR and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1/2 ligand-mediated NF-kappaB activation. Our results identify the NLRP3 inflammasome as a sensor of Vibrio infections through the action of bacterial cytotoxins and differential activation of innate signaling pathways acting upstream of NF-kappaB.

Full-text

Available from: Naomi Higa, Apr 24, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
126 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The inflammasome is a major regulator of inflammation through its activation of procaspase-1, which cleaves prointerleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) into its mature form. IL-1β is a critical proinflammatory cytokine that dictates the severity of inflammation associated with a wide spectrum of inflammatory diseases. NLRP3 is a key component of the inflammasome complex, and multiple signals and stimuli trigger formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome complex. In the current study, we uncovered a yet unknown mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by a pathogen-derived factor. We show that the unique bacterial ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin produced by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and designated community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by colocalizing with the NLRP3 inflammasome and catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of NLRP3. Mutant full-length CARDS toxin lacking ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activity and truncated CARDS toxins unable to bind to macrophages and be internalized failed to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. These studies demonstrate that CARDS toxin-mediated ADP-ribosylation constitutes an important posttranslational modification of NLRP3, that ADPRT activity of CARDS toxin is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and that posttranslational ADPRT-mediated modification of the inflammasome is a newly discovered mechanism for inflammasome activation with subsequent release of IL-1β and associated pathologies.
    mBio 10/2014; 5(6):e02186-14. DOI:10.1128/mBio.02186-14 · 6.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) has recently emerged as a central regulator of innate immunity and inflammation in response to both sterile inflammatory and microbial invasion signals. Although its ability to drive proteolytic procaspase-1 processing has drawn more attention, NLPR3 can also activate NF-κB. To clarify the physiological relevance of this latter function, we examined the effect of NLRP3 on NF-κB activation and cytokine induction in RNA-interference-based NLRP3-knockdown cell lines generated from the human monocytic cell line THP-1. Knocking down NLRP3 reduced NF-κB activation and cytokine induction in the early stages of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Expression of cytokine genes induced by Staphylococcus aureus was not inhibited by a caspase-1 inhibitor, and did not occur through an autocrine mechanism in response to newly synthesized cytokines. We also demonstrated that NLRP3 could activate NF-κB and induce cytokines in response to sterile signals, monosodium urate crystals and aluminum adjuvant. Thus, NLRP3 mediates NF-κB activation in both sterile and microbially induced inflammation. Our findings show that not only does NLRP3 activate caspase-1 post-translationally, but it also induces multiple cytokine genes in the innate immune system.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119179. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119179 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have examined the molecular pathways involved in the adjuvant action of cholera toxin (CT) and two novel nontoxic molecules, multiple-mutated CT (mmCT) and double-mutant heat-labile toxin (dmLT) on human T cell responses. Human PBMCs or isolated monocytes were stimulated in vitro with CT, mmCT, or dmLT plus a polyclonal stimulus (staphylococcal enterotoxin B) or specific bacterial Ags, and effects on expression of cytokines and signaling molecules were determined. CT, mmCT, and dmLT strongly enhanced IL-17A and to a lesser extent IL-13 responses, but had little effect on IFN-γ production or cell proliferation. Intracellular cytokine staining revealed that the enhanced IL-17A production was largely confined to CD4(+) T cells and coculture experiments showed that the IL-17A promotion was effectively induced by adjuvant-treated monocytes. Relative to CT, mmCT and dmLT induced at least 100-fold lower levels of cAMP, yet this cAMP was enough and essential for the promotion of Th17 responses. Thus, inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A was abolished, and stimulation with a cAMP analog mimicked the adjuvant effect. Furthermore, CT, mmCT, and dmLT induced IL-1β production and caspase-1 activation in monocytes, which was associated with increased expression of key proinflammatory and inflammasome-related genes, including NLRP1, NLRP3, and NLRC4. Inflammasome inhibition with a specific caspase-1 inhibitor, or blocking of IL-1 signaling by IL-1 receptor antagonist, abrogated the Th17-promoting effect. We conclude that CT, mmCT, and dmLT promote human Th17 responses via cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and caspase-1/inflammasome-dependent IL-1 signaling. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1401633 · 5.36 Impact Factor