Oblique femoral tunnel placement can increase risks of short femoral tunnel and cross-pin protrusion in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
ABSTRACT A more horizontal femoral tunnel has been emphasized for contemporary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, lowering the femoral tunnel may result in a shorter tunnel. In addition, a more horizontally placed femoral tunnel may have inadequate bone stock at the posterior portion of the tunnel, which can lead to protrusion of the cross-pin (Rigidfix) system for femoral fixation.
A more horizontal femoral tunnel position, particularly via the anteromedial (AM) portal technique, will reduce femoral tunnel length, and a more horizontal femoral tunnel position and anterior-to-posterior pin insertion will increase the risk of Rigidfix pin protrusion.
Controlled laboratory study.
In 10 cadaveric knees, we measured maximum lengths of the femoral tunnels at the positions of 11:30, 10:30, and 9:30 o'clock using the transtibial technique and at the 10:30 and 9:30 o'clock using the AM portal technique. Then, for each femoral tunnel via the transtibial technique at 11:30, 10:30, and 9:30 o'clock positions, tests were performed for 3 directions of Rigidfix pin insertion using the lateral epicondyle as an anatomical landmark, namely, 15 degrees anterior to posterior (A-P), neutral, and 15 degrees posterior to anterior (P-A). It was then determined whether pins protruded from the posterior cortex.
The lengths of femoral tunnels produced using the transtibial technique became shorter as the femoral starting position became more horizontal (51.1 mm, 40.0 mm, and 34.2 mm on average at the 11:30, 10:30, and 9:30 o'clock position, respectively). Tunnels made using the AM portal technique were significantly shorter than those made using the transtibial technique: by 7.6 mm at the 10:30 o'clock and 4.5 mm at the 9:30 o'clock positions on average (P < .001). In addition, increasing obliquity increased the likelihood of Rigidfix pin protrusion, especially when pins were inserted in the A-P direction.
The current effort to lower the femoral tunnel position in ACL reconstruction can shorten the tunnel length and compromise the graft fixation at the femur using the Rigidfix system.
When an intended femoral tunnel position is more horizontal than the 10:30 o'clock position for ACL reconstruction, a surgeon needs to be cautious regarding a short femoral tunnel, particularly when using the AM portal technique, and possible protrusion of the cross-pin (Rigidfix) fixator.
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ABSTRACT: Objective to evaluate a series of patients who underwent surgery for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with flexor tendons, by means of the anteromedial transportal technique using Rigidfix for femoral fixation, and to analyze the positioning of the pins by means of tomography. Methods thirty‐two patients were included in the study. The clinical evaluation was done using the Lysholm, subjective IKDC and Rolimeter. All of them underwent computed tomography with 3D reconstruction in order to evaluate the entry point and positioning of the Rigidfix pins in relation to the joint cartilage of the lateral condyle of the femur. Results the mean Lysholm score obtained was 87.81 and the subjective IKDC was 83.72. Among the 32 patients evaluated, 43% returned to activities that were considered to be very vigorous, 9% vigorous, 37.5% moderate and 12.5% light. In 16 patients (50%), the distal entry point of the Rigidfix pin was located outside of the cartilage (extracartilage); in seven (21.87%), the distal pin injured the joint cartilage (intracartilage); and in nine (28.12%), it was at the border of the lateral condyle of the femur. Conclusion the patients who underwent ACL reconstruction by means of the anteromedial transportal using the Rigidfix system presented satisfactory clinical results over the length of follow‐up evaluated. However, the risk of lesions of the joint cartilage from the distal Rigidfix pin needs to be taken into consideration when the technique via an anteromedial portal is used. Further studies with larger numbers of patients and longer follow‐up times should be conducted for better evaluation.Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia 06/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate tunnel-graft angle, tunnel length and position and change in graft length between transtibial (30 patients) and anteromedial (30 patients) portal techniques using 3D knee models after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.International Orthopaedics 08/2014; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The object of this study was to evaluate entrance angle effects on femoral tunnel length and cartilage damage during anteromedial portal drilling using three-dimensional computer simulation.Yonsei medical journal. 11/2014; 55(6):1584-91.