Enhanced CD8 T cell cross-presentation by macrophages with targeted disruption of STAT3.
ABSTRACT CD8 T cell tolerance, once thought to be largely a result of clonal deletion, is now appreciated to be much more complex, additionally involving multiple permutations of partial loss of effector function in residual clonal populations. This is especially important in the context of tumor immunity, in which persistent tolerized cytotoxic CD8 T cells (CTL), if reactivated, could potentially mount a protective response. Previously we have shown that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with a targeted disruption of STAT3 break tolerance in CD4 T cells. Here we evaluate the STAT3-defective APC in terms of its ability to induce a productive CTL response. Our data demonstrate that macrophages derived from conditional STAT3 knockout mice are superior to wild-type macrophages in terms of their ability to prime cognate CTL responses, and to cross-present tumor-derived antigen to CTLs in vitro. CTLs cultured with STAT3-deficient APCs demonstrated a stronger proliferative response and produced increased amounts of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, all of which have been shown to be diminished in tumor-tolerized CD8 T cells. Targeting STAT3 signaling represents therefore an enticing strategy to augment CTL responses in the tumor-bearing host.
Article: Human macrophages and dendritic cells can equally present MART-1 antigen to CD8(+) T cells after phagocytosis of gamma-irradiated melanoma cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) can achieve cross-presentation of naturally-occurring tumor-associated antigens after phagocytosis and processing of dying tumor cells. They have been used in different clinical settings to vaccinate cancer patients. We have previously used gamma-irradiated MART-1 expressing melanoma cells as a source of antigens to vaccinate melanoma patients by injecting irradiated cells with BCG and GM-CSF or to load immature DC and use them as a vaccine. Other clinical trials have used IFN-gamma activated macrophage killer cells (MAK) to treat cancer patients. However, the clinical use of MAK has been based on their direct tumoricidal activity rather than on their ability to act as antigen-presenting cells to stimulate an adaptive antitumor response. Thus, in the present work, we compared the fate of MART-1 after phagocytosis of gamma-irradiated cells by clinical grade DC or MAK as well as the ability of these cells to cross present MART-1 to CD8(+) T cells. Using a high affinity antibody against MART-1, 2A9, which specifically stains melanoma tumors, melanoma cell lines and normal melanocytes, the expression level of MART-1 in melanoma cell lines could be related to their ability to stimulate IFN-gamma production by a MART-1 specific HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8(+) T cell clone. Confocal microscopy with Alexa Fluor®(647)-labelled 2A9 also showed that MART-1 could be detected in tumor cells attached and/or fused to phagocytes and even inside these cells as early as 1 h and up to 24 h or 48 h after initiation of co-cultures between gamma-irradiated melanoma cells and MAK or DC, respectively. Interestingly, MART-1 was cross-presented to MART-1 specific T cells by both MAK and DC co-cultured with melanoma gamma-irradiated cells for different time-points. Thus, naturally occurring MART-1 melanoma antigen can be taken-up from dying melanoma cells into DC or MAK and both cell types can induce specific CD8(+) T cell cross-presentation thereafter.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e40311. · 4.09 Impact Factor