A rapid 2 min liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method operating in multiple reaction ion monitoring mode was developed and validated that allows for the characterization and simultaneous quantification of 11 phytoestrogen metabolites with mass transitions m/z 241/119 (equol), 253/132 (daidzein), 255/149 (dihydrodaidzein), 257/108 (O-desmethylangolesin), 269/133 (genistein), 283/184 (glycitein), 267/191 (formononetin), 289/109 (biochanin A), 267/91 (coumestrol), enterodiol (301/253), and enterolactone (297/253). The method was demonstrated to be specific and sensitive, and a linear response for each phytoestrogen was observed over a range of 1-5000 ng/mL in human serum with the exception of dihydrodaidzein, whose lower limit of quantification was 2 ng/mL. The separation was carried out on a Synergi Polar-RP 2.5 micron (50 mm x 2.0 mm i.d.) column at 50 degrees C with water and acetonitrile (both containing 10 mM ammonium acetate) as the mobile phase under gradient conditions at a flow rate of 0.75 mL/min. This LC-MS/MS method is very useful for high-throughput analysis of phytoestrogens and proved to be simple, sensitive, reproducible, and reliable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women.
In this randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we used a crossover design to test the effect of soy isoflavone (110 mg/day) (1.3:1.0:0.22 ratio of genistein/daidzein/ glycitein) on bone formation, bone resorption, bone mineral content (BMC), and BMD for 6 months.
Postmenopausal women (n = 19), mean age 70.6 +/- 6.3 years and mean time since menopause 19.1 +/- 5.5 years, were given isoflavone supplements for 6 months. There was a 37% decrease in urinary concentrations of type 1 collagen alpha1-chain helical peptide (HP), a marker of bone resorption, during the isoflavone supplementation compared with baseline (p < 0.05) and a significant difference in mean (SE) HP excretion levels when isoflavone was compared with placebo (43.4 +/- 5.2 vs. 56.3 +/- 7.2 microg/mmol creatinine [cr], p < 0.05). With isoflavone supplementation, mean spine BMD at L2 and L3 was significantly greater when treatment was compared with control, with a difference between means of 0.03 +/- 0.04 g and 0.03 +/- 0.04 g (p < 0.05), respectively. There were nonsignificant increases from baseline for total spine BMC (3.5%), total spine BMD (1%), total hip BMC (3.6%), and total hip BMD (1.3%) with the isoflavone treatment.
Soy isoflavone, in isolated form, was effective in this study to significantly decrease bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Further investigation needs to be done to evaluate the long-term effects of soy isoflavone on bone mass and fracture risk.
Journal of Women's Health 12/2004; 13(9):1000-7. DOI:10.1089/jwh.2004.13.1000 · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for the determination of unconjugated and total (conjugated plus unconjugated) S-equol in human plasma and urine were developed and validated. The separation of R and S enantiomers was achieved with a Chiracel OJ-H column operated in a normal phase mode using ethanol/hexane mobile phase components. Ionization of S-equol by negative ion electrospray generated the [M-H](-) ion whose response was augmented by post-column addition of ammonium hydroxide. A triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to measure the ion current generated from the dissociative transitions m/z 241→m/z 121 (S-equol) and m/z 245→m/z 123 (equol-d(4)). The determination of total S-equol included an additional deconjugation step involving incubation of the sample with sulfatase and glucuronidase. Average recovery for both unconjugated and total S-equol was 85% with no observable matrix effects. Linearity was established for unconjugated S-equol from 0.025ng/mL to 10ng/mL (plasma) and 0.20ng/mL to 200ng/mL (urine). The average coefficient of variation and accuracy per occasion was within ±15% of the theoretical concentration of S-equol. The method was used to measure the pharmacokinetics of S-equol in human plasma after an oral administration of a single 20mg dose of S-equol to three normal healthy volunteers.
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 12/2010; 55(1):125-34. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2010.12.031 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyphenols in dietary and botanical matrices are usually present as simple and complex O-glycosides. In fermented dietary materials, the glycosidic moiety is removed and accompanied in some cases by more complex changes to the polyphenol. As for most xenobiotics, polyphenols undergo phase II conjugation in the intestinal wall during their absorption from the gut. In contrast, a few polyphenols, such as puerarin in the kudzu vine, are C-glycosides and are stable in the gut and during absorption, distribution and excretion. Large bowel bacteria reduce polyphenol aglycones, causing opening of the heterocyclic B-ring and ring cleavage. The products are mostly absorbed and enter the bloodstream. Phase I and II metabolism events occur in the intestine and the liver - most polyphenols predominantly circulate as β-glucuronides and sulfate esters with very little as the aglycones, the presumed active forms. In addition, metabolism can occur in non-hepatic tissues and cells including breast tumor cells that have variable amounts of cytochrome P450s, sulfatase and sulfotransferase activities. Inflammatory cells produce chemical oxidants (HOCl, HOBr, ONO(2)(-)) that will react with polyphenols. The isoflavones daidzein and genistein and the flavonol quercetin form mono- and dichlorinated products in reaction with HOCl. Genistein is converted to 3'-nitrogenistein in the lung tissue of lipopolysaccharide-treated rats. Whereas polyphenols that can be converted to quinones or epoxides react with glutathione (GSH) to form adducts, chlorinated isoflavones do not react with GSH; instead, they are converted to β-glucuronides and are excreted in bile. Analysis of polyphenols and their metabolites is routinely carried out with great sensitivity, specificity and quantification by LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Critical questions about the absorption and tissue uptake of complex polyphenols such as the proanthocyanins can be answered by labeling these polyphenols with (14)C-sucrose in plant cell culture and then purifying them for use in animal experiments. The (14)C signature is quantified using accelerator mass spectrometry, a technique capable of detecting one (14)C atom in 10(15) carbon atoms. This permits the study of the penetration of the polyphenols into the interstitial fluid, the fluid that is actually in contact with non-vascular cells.
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