Transgenic pigs as models for translational biomedical research.
ABSTRACT The translation of novel discoveries from basic research to clinical application is a long, often inefficient, and thus costly process. Accordingly, the process of drug development requires optimization both for economic and for ethical reasons, in order to provide patients with appropriate treatments in a reasonable time frame. Consequently, "Translational Medicine" became a top priority in national and international roadmaps of human health research. Appropriate animal models for the evaluation of efficacy and safety of new drugs or therapeutic concepts are critical for the success of translational research. In this context rodent models are most widely used. At present, transgenic pigs are increasingly being established as large animal models for selected human diseases. The first pig whole genome sequence and many other genomic resources will be available in the near future. Importantly, efficient and precise techniques for the genetic modification of pigs have been established, facilitating the generation of tailored disease models. This article provides an overview of the current techniques for genetic modification of pigs and the transgenic pig models established for neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cystic fibrosis, and diabetes mellitus.
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ABSTRACT: Traditional methods of transgene delivery in livestock are inefficient. Recently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) based lentiviral vectors have been shown to offer an efficient transgene delivery system. We now extend this method by demonstrating efficient generation of transgenic pigs using an equine infectious anaemia virus derived vector. We used this vector to deliver a green fluorescent protein expressing transgene; 31% of injected/transferred eggs resulted in a transgenic founder animal and 95% of founder animals displayed green fluorescence. This compares favourably with results using HIV-1 based vectors, and is substantially more efficient than the standard pronuclear microinjection method, indicating that lentiviral transgene delivery may be a general tool with which to efficiently generate transgenic mammals.FEBS Letters 08/2004; 571(1-3):233-6. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The presence of galactose alpha-1,3-galactose residues on the surface of pig cells is a major obstacle to successful xenotransplantation. Here, we report the production of four live pigs in which one allele of the alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase locus has been knocked out. These pigs were produced by nuclear transfer technology; clonal fetal fibroblast cell lines were used as nuclear donors for embryos reconstructed with enucleated pig oocytes.Science 03/2002; 295(5557):1089-92. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) typically develop night blindness early in life due to loss of rod photoreceptors. The remaining cone photoreceptors are the mainstay of their vision; however, over years or decades, these cones slowly degenerate, leading to blindness. We created transgenic pigs that express a mutated rhodopsin gene (Pro347Leu). Like RP patients with the same mutation, these pigs have early and severe rod loss; initially their cones are relatively spared, but these surviving cones slowly degenerate. By age 20 months, there is only a single layer of morphologically abnormal cones and the cone electroretinogram is markedly reduced. Given the strong similarities in phenotype to that of RP patients, these transgenic pigs will provide a large animal model for study of the protracted phase of cone degeneration found in RP and for preclinical treatment trials.Nature Biotechnology 09/1997; 15(10):965-970. · 32.44 Impact Factor