Prevalence of Traumatic Brain Injury in an Offender Population: A Meta-Analysis
Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.Journal of Correctional Health Care 04/2010; 16(2):147-59. DOI: 10.1177/1078345809356538
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can create challenges to managing offenders and to their successful community reentry upon release. In this study, the researchers reviewed relevant articles in Pubmed, PsycInfo, Medline, and EmBase (1983 to 2009) and communicated with other researchers to identify 20 epidemiologic studies that met preestablished inclusion criteria. Random-effects meta- and subgroup analyses were conducted to calculate the prevalence of TBI and the effects of gender, offender type, and definition and method of identifying TBI. The estimated prevalence of TBI in the overall offender population was 60.25 (95% confidence interval: 48.08 to 72.41). A truer estimate of TBI prevalence in offending populations could lead to more appropriate resource allocation, screening, and management of offenders.
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- "Research into prevalence of acquired brain injury rates in UK male prisoner populations shows similar and concerning levels of injury (Williams et al., 2010) at around 60 per cent and a meta-analysis of previous studies indicating a prevalence rate of 52 per cent (Shiroma et al., 2012). The largest UK study undertaken to date, by Pitman et al. (2013), indicated a prevalence rate of 47 per cent amongst a prisoner population and that of these brain injured prisoners, 73 per cent reported that the brain injury predated their first offence, 71 per cent had experienced more than one traumatic brain injury, 30 per cent had experienced five or more traumatic brain injuries, 43 per cent had been in prison five or more times, 80 per cent had a history of drug use and they were three times more likely than non-brain injured prisoners to have held only partly skilled, unskilled jobs or to have never been employed. "
ABSTRACT: Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to examine the research into prevalence of acquired brain injury in non-ABI specialist services, the impact of the invisible aspects of executive impairment and loss of insight upon functioning and to question how this is assessed and managed by generalist services. Design/methodology/approach-A literature search was undertaken to identify where people with an ABI may come in to contact with services that are not specifically designed to meet their needs. Findings-ABI is prevalent amongst users of a variety of community, inpatient and criminal justice services. The common albeit invisible consequences of ABI complicate assessment, service use and or treatment particularly in the context of a lack of under pinning knowledge and experience amongst the staff in non-specialist ABI services. As a consequence risks to children and adults are increased, opportunities for rehabilitation and growth are lost and human potential squandered. Addressing the first stage in this process, developing knowledge of the consequences of ABI and how to assess need, is a pre-requisite for change. Practical implications-An absence of basic underlying knowledge of the consequences of ABI impacts upon assessment and so limits the effectiveness of services. A consequence of this is manifest in the over-representation of people with an ABI to be found in non-specialist settings. Originality/value-Little research is undertaken from a social and community perspective into the impact of ABI over the longer term for those who have no contact with specialist services and yet, quite clearly by their use of other services, have unidentified, unrecognised and un-responded to needs.Social Care and Neurodisability 11/2014; 5(4-4):201-213. DOI:10.1108/SCN-12-2013-0043
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- "Two meta-analyses have examined its prevalence in offender populations. Shiroma et al. (2010) found a prevalence of about 60% (95% CI = 48.1-72.4) among young offenders, whereas (Farrer et al. (2012) revealed from nine studies of juvenile offenders that about 30% of them have a TBI. "
ABSTRACT: There is some evidence that antisocial individuals, including young delinquents, are significantly more likely than people in the general population to incur a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Extant studies are hampered by methodological limitations, such as small sample sizes, lack of control for confounding effects, and use of single sites and may lack representativeness. The hypothesis for this study is that young offenders with a history of TBI will not only be at higher risk of impulsivity and negative emotionality than their non-injured peers but also that those with TBI will have had more previous victimisation experiences. Data from two sites (Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ) in a substantial longitudinal, prospective study - the Pathways to Desistance Study - were used to compare young people (average age 16 years) who reported TBI with those who did not. Independent variables were behavioural, criminogenic and psychosocial measures. Male youths were about twice as likely as young females to report TBI. Such injury was associated with higher impulsivity and negative emotion ratings, even after allowing for potentially confounding factors, including sex. In addition, TBI was independently associated with self-reported experience of victimisation. This extends the generalisability of earlier suggestions of a relationship between TBI and offending, and various factors thought likely to mediate the relationship. The implications are, thus, that it is likely to be of practical value to screen young people who get into the criminal justice system for a history of TBI, and thus to allow for more specific tailoring of interventions to reduce the range of associated problems, including likely reoffending. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 07/2014; 24(3). DOI:10.1002/cbm.1900 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although self-sustaining combustion has often been termed auto ignition in studies on scramjet combustors, it should be interpreted as a flame-holding phenomenon rather than ignition. Criteria for flame holding in H2-fueled scramjet engines have been discussed by approximating the recirculation zone in the combustor with a perfectly stirred reactor. The influence of mass flow rates and reactor volumes on flame holding can be summarized by a critical reaction time in the recirculation zone. It was found that the reaction time was proportional to pressure, with P−13 for H2 reactions, and the recirculation zone should be occupied with reactants having equivalence ratios in the range 0.4<<3. The flow time was evaluated from the turbulent exchange rate over the backward-facing steps, and it was proportional to the size of the steps and struts. Comparison between the reaction and the residence times in the step case yielded a new criterion for flame holding. It indicated that the step with 4 mm height, the design of which was based on component studies, was insufficient to anchor the flame in the Mach 4 (M4) flight condition. This explained why a flame stabilized on the top wall of an engine failed to propagate to the cowl side of the engine in the M4 tests. Because burning pressure is low and convective velocity becomes high, flame holding is till crucial in the 4 mm step case under flight conditions at March 6 and 8. Consequently, flameholding struts are necessary, in addition to the step and the flame tends to elongate from the combustor to cause imperfect combustion. A competition between the slow heat release and the high convection velocity dominates the performance of scramjet engines in flight at the higher Mach numbers.Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 01/2000; 28(1):689-695. DOI:10.1016/S0082-0784(00)80270-2 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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