Prospective Association between Milk Intake and Adiposity in Preschool-Aged Children

Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 04/2010; 110(4):563-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2009.12.025
Source: PubMed


To determine whether the quantity and type of milk (whole, reduced fat, or 1%/nonfat) consumed at age 2 years is associated with adiposity at age 3 years.
We assessed milk and dairy intake at age 2 years with food frequency questionnaires completed by mothers. Our primary outcomes were body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), z score and overweight at age 3 years, defined as BMI for age and sex >or=85th percentile.
Eight-hundred and fifty-two preschool-aged children in the prospective US cohort Project Viva.
Linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for maternal BMI and education, paternal BMI, and child age, sex, race/ethnicity, intake of energy, nondairy beverages, television viewing, and BMI z score at age 2 years were used.
At age 2 years, mean milk intake was 2.6 (standard deviation 1.2) servings per day. Higher intake of whole milk at age 2, but not reduced-fat milk, was associated with a slightly lower BMI z score (-0.09 unit per daily serving [95% confidence interval: -0.16 to -0.01]) at age 3 years; when restricted to children with a normal BMI (5th to <85th percentile) at age 2 years, the association was null (-0.05 unit per daily serving [95% confidence interval: -0.13 to 0.02]). Intake of milk at age 2 years, whether full- or reduced-fat, was not associated with risk of incident overweight at age 3 years. Neither total milk nor total dairy intake at age 2 years was associated with BMI z score or incident overweight at age 3 years.
Neither consuming more dairy products, nor switching from whole milk to reduced-fat milk at age 2 years, appears likely to prevent overweight in early childhood.

15 Reads
  • Source
    • "Table 3 and Table 4 show the strongest associations in these two experiments. It turns out that all of the inferred food/health associations (labeled as positive, negative or neutral in the last columns of Tables 3-4) are reasonable, given current food/health science domain knowledge [48]. An expert in food sciences has confirmed the results in Tables 3-4. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: THIS PAPER PRESENTS A NOVEL FRAMEWORK FOR VISUAL EXPLORATORY SEARCH OF RELATIONSHIP GRAPHS ON SMARTPHONES (VESRGS) THAT IS COMPOSED OF THREE MAJOR COMPONENTS: inference and representation of semantic relationship graphs on the Web via meta-search, visual exploratory search of relationship graphs through both querying and browsing strategies, and human-computer interactions via the multi-touch interface and mobile Internet on smartphones. In comparison with traditional lookup search methodologies, the proposed VESRGS system is characterized with the following perceived advantages. 1) It infers rich semantic relationships between the querying keywords and other related concepts from large-scale meta-search results from Google, Yahoo! and Bing search engines, and represents semantic relationships via graphs; 2) the exploratory search approach empowers users to naturally and effectively explore, adventure and discover knowledge in a rich information world of interlinked relationship graphs in a personalized fashion; 3) it effectively takes the advantages of smartphones' user-friendly interfaces and ubiquitous Internet connection and portability. Our extensive experimental results have demonstrated that the VESRGS framework can significantly improve the users' capability of seeking the most relevant relationship information to their own specific needs. We envision that the VESRGS framework can be a starting point for future exploration of novel, effective search strategies in the mobile Internet era.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79379. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079379 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Wiley [36] found milk intake was positively associated with BMI among children aged 2–4 years in an analysis of NHANES 1999–2004 data while a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES 1999–2002 data of 2–5 year olds revealed that energy intakes of flavored milk drinkers were higher than those that consumed plain milk or non milk drinkers, but BMI indices did not differ among the three groups [27]. Huh et al. [37] reported in their study that milk intake at age 2 years, whether full or reduced-fat, was not linked to the risk of overweight at age 3 years. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Given the epidemic of childhood obesity, it is crucial to assess food and beverage intake trends. Beverages can provide a large number of calories and since consumption patterns seem to develop at a young age we examined beverage consumption trends over three decades. The objective of this study was to assess the beverage (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks, tea, soy beverages, and soft drinks) consumption trends in children <1-5 years of age. Methods Data from individuals ages <1-5 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1976–1980, 1988–1994 and 2001–2006 were used to assess beverage consumption and associated calorie and nutrient intakes. Results During the NHANES 1976–1980 and 1988–1994 periods, approximately 84–85% of children were consuming milk, whereas only 77% were consuming milk during NHANES 2001–2006. Flavored milk intake was relatively low, but increased to 14% during the last decade (p < 0.001). Fruit juice consumption increased dramatically during NHANES 2001–2006 to more than 50% of the population compared to about 30% in the older surveys (p < 0.001). No significant changes were observed in fruit drink intake across all three decades with 35-37% of this population consuming fruit drinks. At least 30% of children consumed soft drinks. Milk was the largest beverage calorie contributor in all three decades surveyed and was the primary contributor of calcium (52-62%), phosphorus (37-42%), magnesium (27-28%), and potassium (32-37%). Fruit juice and fruit drinks each provided 8-10% of calories with soft drinks providing 5-6% of calories. Fruit juice was an important provider of potassium (16-19%) and magnesium (11%). Fruit drinks provided less than 5% of nutrients examined and soft drinks provided very little of the nutrients evaluated. Conclusions Given concerns about childhood obesity and the need to meet nutrition requirements, it is prudent that parents, educators and child caretakers replace some of the nutrient poor beverages young children are currently consuming with more nutrient dense sources like low-fat and fat-free milk.
    Nutrition Journal 10/2012; 11(1):92. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-11-92 · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accumulation of excess body fat tracks from an early age and interventions aimed at preventing childhood obesity may need to begin early in life, particularly for children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). There is evidence from animal studies food and activity patterns in offspring may be programmed by an adverse intrauterine environment, however evidence of an effect in humans is lacking. The ethnic diversity of young people in New Zealand is increasing but little is known with respect to the early life ethnic differences in food and activity patterns and body composition. Understanding differences may help explain the genesis of ethnic disparity in the prevalence of obesity and associated health conditions The primary aim of this study was to examine and compare food and activity patterns and body composition in a sample of 147 children at the mid-toddler stage of development. The average age was 27.7 months and 48 European (F 26; M 28), 41 Polynesian (F 22; M 19), 36 Indian (F 17; M 19), 18 Asian (F 12; M 6) and 4 Other (F 3; M 1) children were studied. Because the children in this study were born to mothers treated for GDM, the effects of maternal glucose control and GDM treatment (metformin versus insulin) on food and activity patterns were also examined. Food and activity data were collected by a food frequency questionnaire, 24-hour food recall and a 24-hour activity recall. Body composition was measured using anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) when possible. DEXA scans were used to validate a BIA equation to predict fat free mass. When compared with the Ministry of Health (MoH) nutritional guidelines, two-thirds of toddlers did not consume breads and cereals four or more time per day, and one-third and one-quarter did not consume fruit and vegetables twice a day respectively. Three-quarters of toddlers consumed treat foods at least once a day, and takeaways at least twice a week and more than two-thirds consumed sweet drinks at least once a day. Toddlers slept on average 12.5 hours per 24 hour period, watched 1.0 hour of television, and played actively for almost 5.0 hours. Overall girls had a higher fatness (3%) than boys. No associations between food and activity patterns and body composition at 2 years of age were found, and no associations between maternal glucose control, GDM treatment (metformin versus insulin) or food and activity patterns at 2 years of age were found. Marked ethnic differences in food and activity patterns and body composition were found. Specifically: - Less Indian children consumed fruit twice a day and meat once a day than European children, and more Polynesian children consumed takeaways at least five times a week than European children. - Polynesian, Asian and Indian toddlers slept for 1.0 hour less than European toddlers and watched around 0.5 hours more television per day. - Polynesian toddlers were taller and heavier than other ethnic groups and had on average 2% more body fat than European toddlers. - After adjusting for height, weight and age, Indian children had on average 0.3kg more fat mass than European and Polynesian toddlers. Overall, a notable proportion of toddlers did not consume the recommended servings of breads and cereals, fruit and vegetables per day, regularly consumed treat foods, sweet drinks and takeaways, and watched TV. Ethnic differences in food and activity patterns and body composition were identified in this study in that could contribute to the ethnic disparity in the prevalence of obesity and related diseases. With food and activity patterns and body composition shown to track from an early age, interventions aimed at preventing obesity may need to begin early in life and be sustained throughout the life course.
Show more


15 Reads
Available from