The association of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone with cytokines and markers of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a case-control study
ABSTRACT Disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) varies substantially during periods when luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels change, for example during pregnancy, postpartum, and menopause. We wanted to investigate whether small fluctuations in these hormones could be associated with similar fluctuations in cytokines and disease activity in RA.
Disease activity markers, serum LH, FSH, and 24 cytokines were assessed on days 1 and 8 in 20 RA patients (median age 58 years, six males) and 19 controls (median age 56 years, six males).
Percentage changes in LH and FSH correlated positively with percentage changes in key proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha (LH r = 0.737, p = 0.0007; FSH r = 0.680, p = 0.001) and interleukin (IL)-1beta (LH r = 0.515, p = 0.050; FSH r = 0.749, p = 0.0008). Similar correlations were observed with IL-2, IL-2R, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and eotaxin, but not with the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, in RA and not in controls. Percentage changes in LH, FSH, and cytokines were not correlated with percentage changes of several disease activity markers but were correlated positively with cross-sectional levels of disease activity markers [erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain, VAS global (physician/patient), and the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ)].
The significant associations between percentage changes in LH and FSH and percentage changes in key cytokines and several cross-sectional markers of disease activity may indicate that LH and FSH influence crucial points of the cytokine cascade in RA. This may help to explain, partially, why disease activity initiates or worsens during periods of increased LH and FSH, such as the postpartum period and the menopause.
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ABSTRACT: Females develop multiple hormonal alterations and certain genes may be involved in the intensity of subsequent symptoms including both mood and drug seeking. Seventy Four (74) females were included (mean age=60.23, SD=9.21, [43-87]). A medical evaluation was completed with hormone screening using a number of statistical analyses such as Pearson product moment; one way ANOVA and Regression analysis along with a Bonferroni significance correction p<.004. Of 120 correlations performed, significant hormone/domain correlations were as follows: DHEA/Genitourinary (r=.30, p<.05); FSH/Pulmonary (r=-.29, p<.05); Pregnenolone/Genitourinary (r=.40, p<.006) /Immunological (r=.38, p<.008); Testosterone/total endorsed symptoms (r=-0.34, p<.016); TSH/Pulmonary (r=-.33, p<.03) /Gynecological (r=.30, p<.05). Estrone/Musculoskeletal (r=-0.43, p<.012). After a Bonferroni correction (experiment-wise p<.00045) for statistical significance, no hormones remained significance. In the follow-up phase FSH/Neuropsychiatric (r=.56, p<.05) and Musculoskeletal (r=.67, p<.013); DHEA/Immunological (r=.64, p<.04); LH/ Musculoskeletal (r=.59, p<.34); Free Testosterone/Neuropsychiatric (r=.64, p<.019), Musculoskeletal (r=.68, p<.01), and Dermatologic (r=.57, p<.04); Total Testosterone/Immunological (r=.63, p<.028); TSH/Endocrinological (r=-.62, p<.031). Factor analysis of the MQ yielded two factors with eigenvalues > 1.0 (high loadings: first: Pulmonary, GI, Cardiovascular, and Immunological; second: Musculoskeletal, Gynecological, and the three Neurological domains). Both factors had significant correlations: first/pregnenolone (r=.37, p<.019); second/TSH (r=.33, p<.034). An additional factor analysis of hormone level clusters showed significant correlations with various domains. This study highlights the need to test the core biological endocrine hormones associated with females. Future research will focus on the relationship of for example Leptin and the electrophysiology of the brain. We are cautiously proposing a new paradigm shift whereby we replace the old nomenclature of HRT to MHRT.12/2013; 4. DOI:10.4172/2157-7412.1000206
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ABSTRACT: Various studies have demonstrated that increased leptin levels and obesity are inversely related to cognitive decline in menopausal women. It is hypothesized that adiposity is inversely correlated with cognitive decline, as women with increased weight are less vulnerable to diminishing cognition. However, it is increasingly observed that menopausal women, even with increased adiposity, experience significant cognitive decline. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to analyze cognitive function and processing in menopausal women. Evoked potentials (P300) and neurophysiologic tests have validated brain metabolism in cognitively impaired patients. Post-hoc analyses of 796 female patients entering PATH Medical Clinic, between January 4, 2009 and February 24, 2013, were performed as part of the "Menopause Analytical Hormonal Correlate Outcome Study" (MAHCOS). Patient age range was 39-76 years (46.7±0.2). P300 latency and amplitude correlated with a number of hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, estrone, estriol, DHEA, pregnenolone, progesterone, free and total testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Vitamins D 1.25 and D 25OH, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3). Corrected statistics did not reveal significant associations with P300 latency or amplitude for these hormones except for leptin plasma levels. However, factor analysis showed that FSH and LH clustered together with Vitamin D1.25 and Vitamin D25OH, P300 latency (not amplitude), and log leptin were found to be associated in the same cluster. Utilizing regression analysis, once age adjusted, leptin was the only significant predictor for latency or speed (p = 0.03) with an effect size of 0.23. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with abnormal P300 speed (OR = 0.98). Our findings show a significant relationship of higher plasma leptin levels, potentially due to leptin resistance, and prolonged P300 latency. This suggests leptin resistance may delay electrophysiological processing of memory and attention, which appears to be the first of such an association.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e105048. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105048 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates immune responses; therefore, antagonizing GnRH with cetrorelix may have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to assess short-term cetrorelix therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Method: In this proof-of-concept, randomized, double-blind study involving 99 patients with active, long-standing RA, 48 patients received subcutaneous cetrorelix (5 mg/day on days 1 and 2; 3 mg/day on days 3-5) and 51 received placebo. The primary end-point was the change in the 28-joint Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) by day 5, when the greatest GnRH suppression was anticipated. Secondary end-points included the change in tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and achievement of American College of Rheumatology (ACR) responses and DAS28-CRP < 2.6 by day 5. Patients were followed up on days 10 and 15. Results: By day 5, DAS28-CRP was non-significantly reduced by 0.82 in the cetrorelix group compared to a 0.57 reduction in the placebo group (p = 0.091), TNF-α (log pg/mL) was significantly reduced in the cetrorelix group compared with the placebo group [0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-1.01, p = 0.023], and more patients on cetrorelix achieved ACR20 responses (40% vs. 18%, p = 0.015) and DAS28-CRP < 2.6 (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.009). Inflammatory markers increased towards baseline levels after withdrawal of treatment. Rates of adverse events were similar in both groups. Conclusions: Although there was no significant difference in the primary end-point between groups, antagonizing GnRH led to significant improvements in key secondary end-points. Thus, GnRH antagonists may have rapid anti-inflammatory effects in RA, already occurring within 5 days. The data suggest a novel mode of action for TNF-α inhibition in RA, and potentially in other autoimmune diseases.Scandinavian journal of rheumatology 11/2013; 43(1). DOI:10.3109/03009742.2013.825007 · 2.61 Impact Factor