Two-phase Fine-grain Sleep Transistor Insertion Technique in Leakage Critical Circuits
ABSTRACT Multi-threshold CMOS is a valuable leakage reduction method in circuit standby mode. Reducing leakage current through fine-grain sleep transistor insertion (FGSTI) makes it easier to guarantee circuit functionality and improves circuit noise margins. In this paper, we first indicate the negligible dependence of ST size on the amount of leakage saving which makes the two-phase FGSTI reasonable based on our leakage current and delay models. Then we introduce a novel two-phase FGSTI technique: a) ST placement and b) ST sizing, which are formally modeled as two linear programming (LP) models respectively. Our experimental results show that the two-phase FGSTI technique can achieve 78.91%, 92.55%, 97.97% leakage saving when the circuit slowdown is 0%, 3%, 5% respectively. Comparing to the simultaneous ST placement and sizing method using mix integer linear programming (MLP) , our technique leads to on average 2% more leakage current reduction while at least 10X runtime saving since fewer variables and constraints with less approximation are used in the LP models. When the circuit slowdown is large enough to perform conventional fixed slowdown method, our technique can still achieve 75.48% ST area saving. Moreover, we show that when the circuit slowdown is 0%, it should be carefully considered to use FGSTI technique due to a large amount of leakage feedback gates.