Polymorphisms of agr locus correspond to distinct genetic patterns of virulence in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates from orthopedic implant infections
ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is the leading etiologic agent of orthopedic implant infections. It is endowed with the accessory gene regulator (agr) locus that modulates expression of many virulence genes. Four allelic groups of agr have been recognized within this bacterial species. Here, 200 S. aureus isolates from orthopedic implant infections, typed at the start depending on their agr group, were screened for the presence of adhesin and leukotoxin genes. Interestingly, specific virulence gene patterns emerged in association with agr groups. The most frequently observed agr groups, agr I and agr II, were associated with the presence of sdrE, fib (agr II more than agr I), fnbB (agr I more than agr II), and lukE/lukD (agr II more than agr I). The third more frequent agr group, agr III, differed clearly from agr I and II, exhibiting high prevalence of bbp, generally not harbored by agr I and II, and copresence of bbp with cna, whereas high prevalence of the tandem sdrE/fib marked definitely agr II (91% of agr II isolates), and, though less strictly, agr I, in which prevailed the peculiar fib/fnbB pattern. The only four isolates belonging to agr IV showed full copresence of bbp with fib. Results point out distinct patterns of virulence genes, which underlie distinct evolutive strategies associated to agr groups in S. aureus causing orthopedic implant infections.
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ABSTRACT: The risk of zoonotic transmission to humans highlights the need to understand the molecular ecology of Staphylococcus aureus in foods. In this study, 142 S. aureus isolates obtained from various raw and processed foods from Shanghai, China were characterized to determine their genetic diversity and virulence gene content. A total of 16 clonal complexes (CCs), 34 staphylococcal protein A (spa) types, and 6 accessory gene regulator (agr) allelic groups were identified and analyzed among the 142 S. aureus isolates. Among these, the genotype CC188-t189-agr Ι was the most prevalent, constituting 28.2% of all isolates. The presence of virulence genes encoding 20 staphylococcal enterotoxins (se), toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst1), exfoliative toxins (eta, etb, and etd), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukS-PV and lukF-PV), as well as methicillin resistance gene (mecA), was determined by PCR. Of these S. aureus isolates, 72.5% harbored toxin genes, in which the most frequent toxin gene was sep (43.7%), followed by sej (26.1%) and pvl (21.1%). In contrast, see, ses, set, tsst1, etb, and etd were not found in any of the isolates tested. Eight S. aureus isolates (5.6%, 8/142), seven from raw milk and one from frozen food, were mecA positive and resistant to oxacillin, thus were MRSA. The 142 S. aureus isolates displayed 52 different toxin gene profiles. Although no direct association was found between toxin gene profile and the S. aureus genotype, the isolates belonging to CC5, CC9, CC20, CC50, and CC72 clonal lineages in general carried more toxin genes (> 5) compared with the isolates in other CCs. It was also revealed that raw milk and raw meat were the major sources of isolates containing multiple toxin genes. S. aureus isolates from food that were genetically highly related, displayed diverse toxin gene profiles, implying the significant role of horizontal gene transfer in the emergence of highly toxigenic S. aureus isolates.International Journal of Food Microbiology 11/2014; 195C:1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.11.020 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The demand for joint replacement surgery is continuously increasing with rising costs for hospitals and healthcare systems. Staphylococci are the most prevalent etiological agents of orthopedic infections. After an initial adhesin-mediated implant colonization, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis produce biofilm. Biofilm formation proceeds as a four-step process: (1) initial attachment of bacterial cells; (2) cell aggregation and accumulation in multiple cell layers; (3) biofilm maturation and (4) detachment of cells from the biofilm into a planktonic state to initiate a new cycle of biofilm formation elsewhere. The encasing of bacteria in biofilms gives rise to insuperable difficulties not only in the treatment of the infection, but also in assessing the state and the nature of the infection using traditional cultural methods. Therefore, DNA-based molecular methods have been developed to provide rapid identification of all microbial pathogens. To combat biofilm-centered implant infections, new strategies are being developed, among which anti-infective or infective-resistant materials are at the forefront. Infection-resistant materials can be based on different approaches: (i) modifying the biomaterial surface to give anti-adhesive properties, (ii) doping the material with antimicrobial substances, (iii) combining anti-adhesive and antimicrobial effects in the same coating, (iv) designing materials able to oppose biofilm formation and support bone repair.Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2015; 830:29-46. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-11038-7_2 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections (BSI) and diseases that may be caused by hematogenous spread. The staphylococcal adhesin, for which the association with the infections emerging as a complication of septicemia has been well documented, is a bone sialoprotein-binding protein (Bbp). The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of a bbp gene in S. aureus bloodstream isolates associated with BSI and to investigate to what degree the distribution of this gene is linked to the clonality of the population. Spa typing, used in order to explore the genetic population structure of the isolates, yielded 29 types. Six spa clusters and seven singletons were identified. The most frequent was spa clonal complex CC021 associated with MLST CC30 (38 %). The bbp gene was found in 47 % of isolates. Almost all isolates (95 %) clustered in spa clonal complex CC021 were positive for this gene. All isolates carrying the bbp gene were sensitive to methicillin, and if clustered in the spa CC021, belonged to agr group III. Our study shows that Bbp is not strictly associated with BSI. However, one may conclude that for clonally related S. aureus strains most commonly causing BSI, the risk of Bbp-mediated complications of septicemia is expected to be higher than for other strains.Folia Microbiologica 05/2014; 59(6). DOI:10.1007/s12223-014-0321-7 · 1.15 Impact Factor