Conference Paper

The Panum Proxy Algorithm for Dense Stereo Matching over a Volume of Interest

Microsoft Research Ltd., Cambridge, UK
DOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2006.306 Conference: Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2006 IEEE Computer Society Conference on, Volume: 2
Source: DBLP

ABSTRACT Stereo matching algorithms conventionally match over a range of disparities sufficient to encompass all visible 3D scene points. Human vision however does not do this. It works over a narrow band of disparities - Panum’s fusional band - whose typical range may be as little as 1/20 of the full range of disparities for visible points. Points inside the band are fused visually and the remainder of points are seen as "diplopic" - that is with double vision. The Panum band restriction is important also in machine vision, both with active (pan/tilt) cameras, and with high resolution cameras and digital pan/tilt.

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    ABSTRACT: Stereo matching algorithms conventionally match over a range of disparities sufficient to encompass all visible 3D scene points. Human vision, however, works over a narrow band of disparities-Panum's fusional band-whose typical range may be as little as 1/20 of the full range of disparities for visible points. Only points inside the band are fused visually; the remainder of points are seen diplopically. A probabilistic approach is presented for dense stereo matching under the Panum band restriction. It is shown that existing dense stereo algorithms are inadequate in this problem setting and the main problem is segmentation, marking the image into the areas that fall inside the band. An approximation is derived that makes up for missing out-of-band information with a "proxy" based on image autocorrelation. It is shown that the Panum Proxy algorithm achieves accuracy close to what can be obtained when the full disparity band is available, and with gains of between one and two orders of magnitude in computation time. There are also substantial gains in computation space. Panum band processing is also demonstrated in an active stereopsis framework.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents methods for efficient recovery of accurate binocular disparity estimates in the vicinity of 3D surface discontinuities. Of particular concern are methods that impact coarse-to-fine, local block-based matching as it forms the basis of the fastest and the most resource efficient stereo computation procedures. A novel coarse-to-fine refinement procedure that adapts match window support across scale to ameliorate corruption of disparity estimates near boundaries is presented. Extensions are included to account for half-occlusions and colour uniformity. Empirical results show that incorporation of these advances in the standard coarse-to-fine, block matching framework reduces disparity errors by more than a factor of two, while performing little extra computation, preserving low complexity and the parallel/pipeline nature of the framework. Moreover, the proposed advances prove to be beneficial for CTF global matchers as well.
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