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Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Implementation of ad hoc network in mobile IP / editors Sharifah Hafizah
Syed Ariffin, Fatimah Mohamad.
1. Wireless communication systems. 2. Computer network. I. Sharifah
Hafizah Syed Ariffin. II. Fatimah Mohamad.
Editor: Sharifah Hafizah Syed Ariffin & Rakan
Pereka Kulit: Mohd Nazir Md. Basri & Mohd Asmawidin Bidin
Diatur huruf oleh / Typeset by
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik
Diterbitkan di Malaysia oleh / Published in Malaysia by
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
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Johor Darul Ta’zim, MALAYSIA.
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Routing Protocols in Wireless
Mobile Ad Hoc Network - A
Liza Abdul Latiff
Chapter 2 Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc
Network into Mobile IPv6
Adel Ali, Liza A.Latiff
Chapter 3 Indoor Location tracking in
Mobile Ad Hoc Network
(MANET) Using RSSI
Adel Ali, Liza A.Latiff
Chapter 4 Power Reduction Quadrant-
based Directional Routing
Protocol (QDIR) In Mobile Ad
Chapter 5 Network Performance of a Multi-
hop Quadrant-based Directional
Routing Protocol (QDIR) in
Wireless Ad Hoc Network
Location-based Geocasting and
protocol in mobile
Development Of An Indoor Gps-
Free Self-Positioning System For
Mobile Ad Hoc Network (Manet)
Liza A.Latiff, Adel. Ali
GPS-Free Indoor Geometry-
Based Location Tracking In
Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Liza A. Latiff
Implementation Of A Quadrant-
Chapter 9 114
Based Directional Routing
Protocol (Q-Dir) In Wireless
Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Chapter 10 Reduced Latency In Restricted
Flooding Routing Protocol For
Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Mohd. Shahril Abdullah
This book chapter consists of a collection of papers focusing on the
topic “Wireless Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP”. It starts with a
review of the routing protocols in wireless mobile ad hoc network.
It then proceeds to the explanation of integrating mobile ad hoc
network into mobile IPv6. The use of mobile ad hoc mobile
(MANET) for indoor location tracking using RSSI were later
explored in Chapter 3. A power reduction in quadrant-based
directional routing protocol (Q-DIR) in MANET were later
explained in Chapter 4. The book chapter ends with a network
performance of a multi hop Q-DIR in a wireless ad hoc network.
Sharifah Hafizah Syed Ariffin
Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS
MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK –
Liza Abdul Latiff
Mobile ad hoc network or MANET has evolved since the 80s with
the formation of the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
MANET working group. Subsequently, a.chaner was published in
[I] with the objective of developing a solution framework for
routing in ad hoc network.
An ad hoc network is a collection of mobile devices that
can dynamically move and can reorganize themselves and
communicate over wireless links. These mobile devices are also
autonomous nodes, which serve as routers that forward packets
onto the next link. There is no centralized or central server that
organizes routing of these packets. Packets are forwarded in a
peer-to-peer mode via multihop path to their respective
destinations. Routing to the destination is established at the nodes,
which needs to be determined before or after the reception of
An ad hoc network consists of mobile platforms known as
nodes, 'which are free to move around arbitrarily. These nodes,
which are very small, may be located in buildings, trucks, and cars
or maybe on a battlefield. Each node is equipped with a wireless
antenna that receives and transmits in an isotropic manner, directed
or steer able or a combination of all three. Nodes are stand-alone
devices and operate using batteries. From a global point of view,
2 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
an ad hoc network is network with no infrastructure, easily set up
in minimal time.
Due to the mobility of nodes in MANET, topology of these
networks change unpredictably and routing in one of the main
issues. Even though nodes can self-organized themselves to form
a network, much research work has been done to come up with the
most suitable routing protocol for a certain implementation.
Efficient routing of packets, methods to conserve energy at nodes,
mobility pattern of nodes are some issues considered. Most of the
work done by researchers in research institutes and universities are
on the routing algorithm.
1.2 CHARACTERISTICS AND CHALLENGES
The characteristics and challenges of ad hoc and sensor network
can be divided into four main areas such as:
• Topology. Since nodes are free to move, network topology
of ad hoc network are ever changing. Nodes are also
routers therefore, efficient routing protocol must be
considered so that packets reach their destination in the
shortest time and with no errors.
• Bandwidth. Comparing
infrastructure, usable bandwidth in ad hoc network are
much lower. This is due to mulitpath fading, noise and
interference inherent in wireless transmission. Methods to
improve and increase the available bandwidth needs to be
• Power. Nodes in an ad hoc network rely on battery for their
source of energy. Energy saving methods must he taken
into account to sustain stability and longetivity of nodes.
• Security. Ad hoc network are exposed to eavesdroppings
and spoofing. But because of the decentralised nature of ad
wireless links to wired
Routing Protocols in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network 3
hoc network, node failure is a localised to the affected node
only and minimal effect to the whole network.
ROUTING AND DESIGN OBJECTIVES
Routing is a process of identifying a path from a source to a
destination before or after a request for transmission. Routing
protocol selected must be reachable and loop free. If a node failure
occurs, a cache of backup routing will be required.
Routes chosen are the shortest path between source and
destination via fewer .intermediate nodes. Computing of routes are
decentralized and done at every node and separated from the
higher levels of OSI since network topology changes dynamically.
To reduce monitoring and updating overhead, route computation
must involve few, nodes only and not nodes that have no traffic.
Furthermore, few nodes involvement means less energy usage or
none at all at other nodes.
Since ad hoc network are self-organized, broadcasting to all
nodes must be avoided because it will create flooding at the nodes.
Alternative routes should also be identified to act as backup if a
node failure occurs. One the major challenges in designing a
routing protocol for ad hoc network is to determine a trade off
between information reachability and route updating cost because
network topology changes with time as the node moves to a new
The various routing protocol proposed so far can be
classified into two main broad categories: proactive and reactive
protocols. Proactive protocols are routing algorithm that will
periodically and continuously update routes in the network so that
when a packet need to be transmitted, routes to the destination are
already known and can be forwarded straight away. Destination-
Sequenced Distance Vector routing (DSDV) , Wireless Routing
Protocol (WRP)  are examples of proactive protocol. On the
other hand, reactive protocols are routing algorithms that will
initiate route computation only on demand. Examples of these
4 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
reactive protocols are ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV)
, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) , temporally ordered
routing algorithm (TORA) , Signal Stability-based Routing
(SSR)  and Associativity-Based Routing (ABR) .
Proactive schemes posed a negligible delay since route
.discovery to destinations have to be done periodically and before a
request is made. On the contrary, reactive protocols need time to
determine routes, which are not available at that time. Proactive
schemes, which have minimal delay, uses the whole network
capacity to update routes and in some cases the routes determined
may not he used at all. Nevertheless, in both schemes; a flood of
route queries need to be sent to all nodes and this leads to message
collisions and channel contention, This is known as broadcast
storm problem . Due to this long delay and requirement for
traffic control, pure reactive routing may he sufficient for real-time
From these scenarios, what ad hoc network needs is a hybrid
protocol: a hybrid of proactive and reactive scheme. Hybrid
protocol initiates route discovery procedure on-demand but at
limited updating cost. An example of this is the Zone Routing
Protocol (ZRP) proposed by  and further improved as in .
Besides ZRP, we have Fisheye State Routing , Landmark
Routing (LANMAR)  and location aided routing (LAR) 
and Distance Routing Affect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM)
. These protocols use landmarks, location and distance of
nodes to reduce updating costs.
1.4 METRICS USED IN
The issue.of routing in mobile ad hoc network is different from
other wireless network and is very difficult due to mobility and no
network infrastructure. We are faced with two conflicting issues:
one is to optimize routes which means we need frequent . topology
updates and on the other hand, frequent updates requires high
Routing Protocols in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network 5
The most common metric used to determine optimal path is
minimum number of hops or intermediates nodes as in DSDV,
AODV, DSR, TOM, WRP Figure 1.1 shows how DSR is
implemented and the route selected is via node 2 and 7 for source 1
to destination 8, which has the minimum number of hops.
Link quality is also a metric that is used.in SSR and ABR.
Routes are selected based on the signal strength between nodes and
stability of the connection. This will ensure nodes chosen will he.
less prone to failure and hence a high probability of reaching
In ZRP, nodes updates are localized to a certain zone radius
only. Nodes will be updated proactively so that transmission to
neighboring nodes will he fast where else nodes outside this zone
will be updated on need to basis or on-demand.
Figure 1.1 DSR with minimum number of hops
Node distance is also used as a metric that will ,affect the
frequency of node updates as in DREAM. Nodes update overhead
is reduced because nodes will send updates only when it moves
from its original location. . Another type of metrics that is based of
available power is proposed by .and shows a reduction in cost
of routing packets via the shortest-hop routing by 5-30%. This
new metric will ensure the mean time to node failure is increased
significantly with no increase in packet delays.
The routing protocols mentioned above are based on flat
routing where nodes are on the same level and maintains a routing
table with enmes for all nodes and hence for the whole network.
This approach is suitable for small networks and for scalable
6 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
networks with large number of nodes, a hierarchical style routing
is proposed as in FSR, LANMAR and LAR. Besides hiorarchical
routing, routing based on location inlormation of nodes and
direction of mobility from the nodes' current location will assist in
new route computations .and hence reduce packet delay and packet
loss as in , , and .
Table 1.1 shows a compilation of various routing schemes
and their characteristics. From the table, DSDV, AODV, TORA,
DSR, which uses route discovery and a flat routing, are best used
in fewer number of nodes so that broadcast problem will not
materialized. On the other hand, for large number of nodes, a
hierarchical network with node location facility will reduce update
costs as in ZRP, LANMAR, and LAR.
Table 1.1 Compilation of routing schemes and its characteristics
Protocol Scheme Discovery
DSDV Proactive No
Type of Routing Scalability Routing
AODV Reactive Yes No
DSR Reactive Yes No
1.4.1 Position Location (PL) in Wireless Network
The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) have imposed a
policy that wireless communication licensees have to incorporate
PL capability in their systems in order to provide Enhanced-9 1-1
Routing Protocols in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network 7
(E-9 1 1) service since October 1 , 2001. This regulation has
pushed researchers to incorporate this facility at the nodes with or
without Global Positioning System (GPS).
Once a node location is known, the distance between them
can be derived and hence the number of hops to the destination can
he computed. Ultimately, PL will provide reliable and accurate
position of mobile nodes. Most routing prptacols refer to GPS as a
global resource or reference. But this referencing to GPS
challenges the nature or characteristics of ad hoc network.
Therefore, navigation of radiolocation techniques is used to locate
nodes without using GPS or if it is not available.
The two components of radiolocation are distance
measurements and triangulation. Distance or range measurements
are based on different physical attributes such as: received signal
strength (RSSI), angle of arrival (AoA), time of arrival (TOA), and
time distance of arrival (TDOA).
In order to locate a node accurately with respect to a
reference or anchor nodes, 3D triangulation is used. Anchor node
with a priori knowledge of their locations relative to a global
coordinate system is used in  based on RSSI where distance
between transmitter and receiver are determined by the
transmission power, received power and a good model of the
wireless channel. Triangulation is done by using the least-mean
squares (LMS) approach with a substantial . accuracy from range
measurements obtained from a large number (>3) of neighboring
anchor nodes. From this, topology of the whole network can be
obtained hy topology,discovery where using Assumption Based
Coordinates (ABC) even though with low accuracy.  also
proposed global positioning by engaging in cooperative ranging
approach. Even though convergence to global positioning is time
consuming and node .with high mobility may be hard to locate, it
is sufficient to be used in sensor network, which have low
mobility, and long time discovery is acceptable.
 and  have done research on angle of arrival (AoA)
to locate nodes and proposed Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS).
AoA is a method to estimate the direction from which a neighbor is
8 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
sending data. AoA can be implemented either as an antenna array,
or as a combination of radio and ultrasound receivers. APS is a
hybrid of distance vector and beacon based positioning are usable
for navigational or tracking purposes only.
 made ay analysis of time-based position location
algorithm such as direct solution, iterative least squares, Taylor’s
series and Chan’s algorithm. An algorithm using the decision
feedback (DF) method is proposed to improve the accuracy of the
previous calculated result. The metrics used are position location
error, standard deviation and the number of divergence and shows
to be more superior that not using DF method.
 proposed an algorithm to provide a seamless
connection service by reacting before connectivity breaks. GPS
position information is used to estimate expiration’time of the link
between two adjacent mobiles because nodes exhibit, some degree
of regularity in the mobility pattern. For example, a car travelling
on a map is likely to follow the path of the road and a tank
travelling across a battlefield is likely to maintain its heading and
speed for some time before it changes them. The paper ‘shows
application of mobility pattern to unicast protocol and to multicast
protocols. Simulation was done using Global Mobile Simulation
(GloMoSim) library, which is based on Parsec (parallel discrete-
event simulation capability) with 50 nodes placed randomly in
1000 m X 1000 m area. The metrics used are packet delivery ratio,
number of control bytes transmitted per data byte delivered and
number of total packets transmitted per data packet delivered.
Simulation results indicate that mobility prediction does improved
packet delivery to destinations and control packets are utilized
more efficiently. Mobility prediction is utilized to choose routes
with high connectivity.
1.4.2 Energy Eficient Routing
Another area of research is energy conservation at the nodes since
nodes in ad hoc network are standalone and depends on battery for
their source of energy. Nodes consume a lot of energy in route
Routing Protocols in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network 9
computation and packet transmission with multi-hop routing
protocols. These networks must be designed with a focus on
energy efficiency. Clustering of nodes and transmitting aggregated
data from nodes having similar attributes by a cluster head is the
approach proposed by  and named Data Combining Entities
(DCE). Expected results were seen in’reduction in energy
consumption by a factor 2 to 3. Also a more uniform resource
utilization can be obtained by shaping traffic flow using stochastic
scheme, energy-based scheme streambased scheme.  proposed
a distributed, randomized clustering algorithm to organize sensors
nodes into hierarchy of cluster heads and observe energy saving
increases with the number of levels.
 addresses the optimal fixed packet size for - data
communication in energy constrained wireless sensor network.
Optimal packet size is determined for a set of radio and channel
parameters by maximizing energy efficiency metric. Results show
that some type of forward error correction techniques needs to be
determined to improve energy efficiency even though it need
additional parity bits. Binary BCH codes are found to be 15 %
more energy efficient than the best  also proposed energy
saving algorithm that is based on constrained shortest-path
algorithm. A simulation to study the effect of maximum
transmission distance constraint and comparisons with two other
algorithms were done. To conserve energy, ‘hop’ with the
moderate distance uses less energy compared to hop with a huge
On the other hand, further work .done by  which
proposed that it might not be optimal in view of network lifetime
ind long-term comectivity to use the lowest energy path. A new.
scheme called energy aware routing that uses sub-optimal path
occasionally will increase network lifetimes of up to 40% over
comparable schemes like directed diffusion routing proposed by
10 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
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prediction of nodes will also help to reduce probability of link
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INTEGRATING MOBILE AD HOC
NETWORK INTO MOBILE IPv6
The Internet Protocol (IP) that is currently used is called IPv4.
IPv4 was designed in January 1980 and since its inception, there
have been many requests for more addresses and enhanced
capabilities due to the phenomenal growth of the Internet.
Therefore, IPv6 was developed in 1992. Major changes in IPv6 are
the redesign of the header, including the increase of address size
from 32 bits to 128 bits. Besides the larger address space IPv6 also
provides other new features such as address auto configuration,
enhanced mobility support and IP Security (IPSec) integrated into
the standard IPv6 protocol stack [3,6,15]. Just having more
addresses does not solve the problem of mobility. Because part of
the IP address is used for routing purposes, it must be topologically
correct. This is where Mobile IP comes in.
Wireless networks are classified into two modes:
Infrastructure mode and ad-hoc mode. To provide mobility in
infrastructure mode, Mobile IP is sufficient but with ad-hoc mode
both the ad-hoc routing protocols as well as the Mobile IP is
necessary. The Mobile IP tries to solve the problem of how a
mobile node may roam from its network to foreign network and
still maintain connectivity to the Internet .
Mobile IPv6 has more features compared to Mobile IPv4
Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc Network into 15
Mobile IPv6 Network
such as route optimization and Dynamic Home Agent Address
Discovery (DHAAD). Ad hoc network tries to solve the problem if
the infrastructure is not available or inconvenient for its use such
as in rural environments . Ad hoc networks can be subdivided
into two classes: static and mobile . In this paper we will use
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs).
Integrating MANET with Mobile IPv6 network will extend
the capabilities of Mobile IPv6 to MANET which will introduces
fast agent discovery, increases cell coverage of access points,
monitoring system provision and extend connectivity to other
networks or to Internet [1,10,11].
The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2
presents related work in integration of MANET with Mobile IPv6
network. The implementation of our proposal will be described in
Section 3 followed by Section 4, which will conclude the paper.
2.2 RELATED WORK
There are many methods of integrating MANET with Mobile IPv4.
The main difference is the routing protocol used in MANET and
access point of MANET. One of the method of Integrating Mobile
IPv4 with Ad hoc networks  is using the Destination-Sequenced
Distance Vector (DSDV) routing protocol in the ad hoc network.
It extends access to multiple nodes in MANET to create an
environment that supports both macro and micro mobility.
Another method is MIPMANET: Mobile IPv4 for Mobile Ad hoc
Networks . It uses Mobile IP Foreign Agent (FA) as access
point to the internet. If any node wants Internet access, it registers
in the FA and use its home address for communication. The Ad
hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is used
to deliver packets between nodes and FA in the ad hoc network. It
provides algorithm MIPMANT Cell Switch (MMCS) to determine
when mobile node should register with a new FA. Another method
of integration is Ad hoc Network and IP Network Capabilities for
Mobile Host . It uses AODV as the routing protocol in the ad
hoc network and Mobile IPv4 in outside traffic network. It uses
16 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
Multihomed mobile IPv4 so that any mobile node can register with
multiple FAs simultaneously. This connectivity with multiple
gateways will enhance performance and reliability. All these
methods use mobile IPv4 and they depend of FA. Mobile IPv6,
however, does not define foreign agents. To be able to reach the
Internet, mobile nodes using Mobile IPv6 need an Internet
Four personal computers identified as HA, MN, CN and Gateway
had been configured with IPv6 based on the Linux operating
system as shown in Figure 2.1. Mobile IPv6 which is a distribution
from Helsinki University of been setup in all MANET nodes .
Kernel AODV is a loadable kernel module Technology had been
setup in HA, MN and CN. Kernel AODV which is a distribution
from National Institute of Standards and Technology in US had for
Linux. It implements AODV routing between computers equipped
with WLAN devices.
Figure 2.1 Network Architecture
NAT-PT has been setup in the gateway to establish communication
links between IPv4 (MANET) network and IPv6 (Mobile IPv6)
Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc Network into 17
Mobile IPv6 Network
network . The NAT-PT Linux gateway has three Ethernet ports
and one WLAN as shown in Figure.2.1. All HA, MN and CN are
started by running the program as shown in Figure.2 2.
Figure 2.2. Start Mobile IPv6
2.3.1 Communication between MN and CN
When MN starts its Mobile IPv6 program in home network, it
sends multicast message (router solicitation) to all routers until HA
send router advertisement as shown in Figure 2.3. Then, MN will
be assigned an address (fec0::280:c8ff:fe39:41bb/64). This will
inform MN that it is in the home network. When MN moves to a
foreign network, it attaches itself to the gateway, which advertises
router advertisement periodically as shown in Figure 2.4. After
MN receives router advertisement from the gateway, it gets a CoA
address (fec0::106:1100:0:280:c8ff:fe39:41bb /64). MN will send
a BU to HA and CN. MN will register all sending BU in the BU
list as shown in Figure 2.4.
Figure 2.3. Router Solicitations and Router Advertisements
HA and CN will keep the BU for a certain time (lifetime) in the
Binding cache as shown in Figure. 2.5. Beyond the stipulated
lifetime, if no update of BU is received then this shows that MN is
Unreachable. BU in HA, CN and in MN will be deleted once MN
18 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
Figure 2.4 Mobile IPv6 Binding update list in MN
Figure 2.5 Mobile IPv6 Binding cache in CN and HA
2.3.2 Communication between MN and MANET node
Kernel AODV provides route table for all MANET nodes in the
MANET coverage area as shown in Figure 2.6. It also supports
multihop connectivity between MANET nodes. This gateway has
a pool of IPv4 address including IPv4 subnet 10.5.0/24. When MN
attaches itself to the gateway,
(fec0:106:1100:0:280:c8ff:fe39 :41bb/64). If MN wants to
communicate with MANET node (10.5.0.30), MN creates a packet
with the Source Address, SA=fec0:106:1100:0:280:c8ff:fe39:41bb
and destination address, DA= PREFIX: 10.5.0.30. The PREFIX is
static and any packet originating from an IPv6 node destined to the
IPv4 network will contain that PREFIX as a part of the IPv6
NAT-PT will translate the IP header including the source and
destination address. After translation, the source address will be a
one pool address (say 10.5.0.33) and the destination address is
10.5.0.30. The NAT-PT will retain the mapping between 10.5.0.33
and fec0:106:1100:0:280:c8ff: fe39: 41bb until the end of the
it gets a CoA of
Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc Network into 19
Mobile IPv6 Network
session. In case of a reverse trip, source address will be 10.5.0.30
and the destination address will be 10.5.0.33. NAT-PT will change
the source address to PREFIX: 10.5.0.30 and destination address to
fec0: 106: 1100:0: 280: c8ff: fe39: 41bb. The communication will
continue as shown in Figure 2.7 and Figure 2.8.
Figure 2.6. Routing Table in gateway
Figure 2.7 Ping one pool address in Ad hoc node
Figure 2.8 MN receives ping request from gateway
This paper has presented a mechanism for integrating MANET
with Mobile IPv6. The IPv6 is based on Linux operating system.
Mobile IPv6 test bed with MN, HA and CN functions has been
successfully setup and conFigureured in a wired LAN
environment. MANET software has been successfully setup and
20 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
configured in gateway by using Universal Serial Port (USB)
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) card. However, this
Mobile IPv6 test bed is limited to Linux platform because it works
under the kernel level of Linux operating system. NAT-PT
software has been successfully setup and conFigureured in the
gateway which allows communication between MANET (IPv4)
network and mobile IPv6 network.
 M. Ergen and A. Puri, “ MEWLANA-Mobile IP enriched
wireless local area network architecture”, Vehicular
Technology Conference, Proceedings, IEEE vol.4, pp. 2449 -
2453, 24-28 Sept.2002
 Antti J. Tuominen and Henrik Petander, “ MIPL Mobile IPv6
for Linux ”, Proceedings of Ottawa Linux Symposium 2001,
Ottawa, Canada, June 2001
 Christer Engman,“A study on using IPv6 in home networks”,
master thesis, Department of Teleinformatics Network
Services Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden,
 M. Mauve, J. Widmer and H. Hartebstein, “A Survey on
Position-based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Network, IEEE
Network Magazine, November 2001
 “Linux- based Userspace NAT-PT”, http://www. ipv6.or .kr
 C.E. Perkins and D.B. Johnson, “Mobility support in IPv6.”
Proc. 2nd Ann., Int’l Conf. Mobile Computing and
Networking (Mobicom 96), ACM Press, 1996,pp.27-37
 Jun-Zhao Sun, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: An Essential
Technology for Pervasive
Conferences on Info-tech & Info-net, Beijing, China, 2001
 Y. Sun, E. M. Belding-Royer, C. E. Perkins, “Internet
Connectivity for Ad hoc Mobile Networks” International
Journal of Wireless Information Networks, Vol. 9, No. 2,
Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc Network into 21
Mobile IPv6 Network
 Yu-Chee Tseng; Chia-Ching Shen; Wen-Tsuen Chen, ”
Integrating mobile IP with ad hoc networks ”; Computer,
IEEE Computer Society, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 48 –55, May
 Johnsson, U.; Alriksson, F.; Larsson, T.; Johansson, P.;
Maguire, G.Q., Jr.;“MIPMANETmobile IP for mobile ad hoc
networks “, Mobile and Ad Hoc Networking and Computing,
MobiHOC. IEEE conference, pp. 75 -85, 11 Aug. 2000
 C. E. Perkins, R. Wakikawa, A. Nilsson, A. J. Tuominen,
“Internet Connectivity for mobile ad hoc Networks” wireless
communication and mobile computing, pp. 465-482, 2002
 M. Frodigh, P. Johansson and P. Larsson,” Wireless ad hoc
networking-The art of networking without a network”,
Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000
 Ahlund, C.; Zaslavsk, A.; “ Integration of ad hoc network and
IP network capabilities
Telecommunications, IEEE conference, Vol. 1, pp. 482 -489,
Feb. 23 -Mar. 1, 2003
 L.Klein-Berndt,”Kernel AODV”, National Institute of
Standards and Technology, Technology Administration, U.S
Department of Commerce. May 2003.
 J. W. Atwood, Kedar C. Das, and Ibrahim Haddad,” NAT-
PT: Providing IPv4/IPv6
Translation”, Ericsson IPv6 Activities, a technical report, July
for mobile hosts ”,
and IPv6/IPv4 Address
INDOOR LOCATION TRACKING IN
MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK (MANET)
Liza A. Latiff
Mobile wireless networks can be classified into two types of
networks: networks with infrastructure (i.e., networks with access
points (APs, gateway and routing support), which are called
Mobile IP, and networks without infrastructure which are called ad
hoc networks. The Mobile IP tries to solve the problem of how
mobile may roam from its network to a foreign network and still
maintain connectivity to the Internet . Ad hoc network are
envisioned to locate and route packets themselves since
infrastructure is not available or inconvenient to provide as in rural
Ad hoc networks can be further subdivided into two
classes: static and mobile. In static ad hoc networks, the position
of a node may not change once it has become part of the network
. In MANET, nodes are allowed to move arbitrarily and tracking
mechanism of these nodes will be discussed in this paper. The
tracking mechanism developed will provide knowledge of
geographic location of nodes in MANET and will aid in
forwarding strategy based on location; provide security system to
monitor hacker node if it enters MANET. A further advantage is
that the monitoring system will naturally support delivery of
packets to all nodes in a given geographic region. This type of
Indoor Location Tracking in Mobile Ad Hoc Network 23
(MANET) using RSSI
service is called Geographic forwarding. The special feature of the
proposed geographical monitoring system is the ability to detect
position of MANET nodes without using GPS (Global Positioning
System) and also supports multihops monitoring between nodes.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents
related work in indoor location tracking. Then, Section 3 will
provide the location tracking model followed by Section 4, which
will conclude the paper.
3.2 RELATED WORK
There are two types of methods proposed for indoor location
tracking: hardware location tracking method and software location
tracking method. In each type, numerous methods were proposed
to solve the problem of location tracking.
3.2.1 The hardware based systems
Several hardware based schemes have been reported in the
literature; of those the most widely discussed are the Global
Positioning System (GPS), the Active Badge system, the Bat
system and the Cricket Compass system. The most popular system
is GPS. A GPS receiver receives time-stamped radio signals from
satellites and calculates its location. The accuracy is 3-5 meters in
D-GPS, a variant of GPS.
The Active Badge system  uses infrared (IR) signal for
position inference. The mobile device is attached with an
additional hardware unit (badge) which emits a unique IR signal
periodically (15 sec). IR sensors are placed at known positions
such as high up on walls or the ceiling of the office to pick up the
IR signals. The picked up signal is transferred to a PC on the wired
network that executes location estimation software. This system
has several limitations to compute the mobile user location. The
badge and the receivers have to have line-of-sight transmissions as
the reflections due to the walls, partitions and furniture are
unpredictable. The system requires high-density sensors to be
24 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
installed in the building and reported to provide high level of
The Bat system  is similar to the Active Badge system
but uses two types of signals namely RF signals and ultrasound
signals. A small hardware, a Bat (wireless transmitter), is attached
to the mobile devices. RF base stations are deployed through out
the space which will broadcast RF signals addressed to each bat in
the system. These RF broadcasts will be received by both the bat
and the sensors of the system. When the bat receives the RF
signal, it broadcasts an ultrasound signal with its identity. This
ultrasound signal is received again by all the sensors within
coverage area. The time difference between the reception of the
RF signal and the ultrasound signal is used to determine the
distance between the receiving sensor to the bat.
The Cricket Compass system  is similar to the Bat
system in terms of using RF and ultrasound signals. The
difference between them is that the Cricket Compass is
decentralized. In the system, a hardware unit called the Cricket
Compass (CC) is attached to the mobile device. It consists of five
ultrasonic receivers which are placed in a “V” shaped
conFigureuration. Again, beaconing transmitters are placed on the
ceiling. These transmitters emit RF signasl as well as ultrasound
signal to the CCs. The “V” shape receivers detect the phase
difference of the ultrasound signals to determine its orientation. In
addition, it uses the time interval between the RF signal and the
ultrasound signal to determine distance of the transmitter from the
As can be seen from the above discussions, some hardware
based location management systems provide accurate location
information. However, they suffer several drawbacks; GPS system
is very useful outdoors, but it is ineffective indoors because GPS
radio signal is blocked by walls inside building .
The IR based system has a limitation due to the optical path
requirement. Also, the scalability of the IR based system is poor
because of the limited range of the IR devices. All of the hardware
Indoor Location Tracking in Mobile Ad Hoc Network 25
(MANET) using RSSI
based systems require additional devices for signal transmission.
This significantly incurs the cost of installation and maintenance.
3.2.2 The software based systems
Numerous software based systems have been reported in the
literature, one of the most applicable is the RADAR system. The
RADAR system  proposed by Microsoft researchers is a RF
based system for locating and tracking the mobile users inside the
building. During the configuration phase, a database of RF signal
strength (SS) at a set of fixed and known locations is built. This is
obtained by walking along the floor of the building and clicking on
a map of the floor that is displayed on the Mobile Node (MN).
The coordinates of the MN and the SS from a set of Access Points
(APs) are then recorded to form the Radio Map. When
operational, a set of SS from a set of APs is received by the MN
which will determine its location by referring to the Radio Map
measured beforehand. The RADAR system reported a median
error distance of 2.65m and 4.3m for empirically and
mathematically constructed Radio Map respectively. It also
reported that to construct a Radio Map of about 980m2, it is
necessary to have more than 40 pre-measurement points.
Furthermore, at each pre-measurement
measurements are necessary with different mobile orientations. As
expected, software based system has lower accuracy compared to
the hardware based systems.
Accuracy of Radio Maps highly depends on the building
structure and layout. This reduces the flexibility of the system as
any changes on the building structure will affect the accuracy of
Radio Map. Furthermore, any changes to the network architecture
such as the addition/removal of an AP will also affect accuracy the
Radio Map due to the interference and changes in signal strength.
3.3 LOCATION TRACKING MODEL
The location tracking network model consists of a gateway, static
APs and other MNs. The gateway is the center of a Network
26 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
Coordinate System (NCS) and the GUI program resides here.
MNs devices in the network are laptops which are equipped with
an Orinoco WaveLan PC card. The network interface card (NIC)
operates in the 2.4GHz license free ISM band with data rate
between 11Mbps and 1Mbps. Its coverage range for open, semi-
open and closed areas are 160m, 50m and 25m respectively. The
experiment was conducted at a coverage radius of 25m to provide
the best coverage overlap . The WaveLan card driver provides
information on Signal Strength (SS) and Signal to- Noise Ratio
(SNR). In our experiment, we used SS as the metric to compute
location of MN rather than the SNR because noise level is easily
affected by random fluctuation. IEEE802.11 standard specifies that
the minimum beacon interval is 1024μs . This signal strength
is used to obtain the distance between two mobile devices.
3.3.1 Distance Computation using Signal Strength
The signal propagation in an indoor environment is dominated by
reflection, diffraction and scattering. The transmission path
between the transmitter and the receiver vary from line-of-sight
(LOS) to one that is severely obstructed by the structure of the
building. The signal strength is highly influenced by the layout or
partitions of the building, the construction material used, and the
objects in the building. Furthermore, the mobile user
herself/himself is also a signal obstacle.
When the mobile user is in front of a MN, the user
obstructs the signal from another MN coming from behind the
user. Similarly, human movement in the building also affects
signal propagation. Thus, it is very difficult to characterize signal
loss. Therefore, a reasonable indoor signal propagation model
must be determined to compute the distance between MNs.
Theoretically; the indoor signal path loss obeys the distance power
law : determining
Pr(d) = Pr(d0 ) − 10nlog( d0 + Xσ ) (dBm)
Indoor Location Tracking in Mobile Ad Hoc Network 27
(MANET) using RSSI
where Pr(d) is the received power; Pr(d0 ) is the received power at
the reference distance d0; n is the path loss exponent that indicates
the rate at which the path loss increases with distance. It depends
on the surrounding and building type. And d0 is the close-in
reference distance (1m) and d is the separation between the RF
signal transmitter and receiver. The term σ X is a zero mean
Gaussian random variable with standard deviation σ. Equation (1)
is modified to include WAF (Wall Attenuation Factor) as follows:
Pr(d) = Pr(d0 ) − 10nlog( d0)-T*WAF
where T is number of walls between transmitter and receiver.
Despite the distance measurement errors and the motion of the
nodes, the algorithm provides sufficient location information and
accuracy to support basic network functions.
3.3.2 Calculation of Path Loss Exponent
The test bed consists of two laptops in peer-to-peer mode and
another two PCs. One PC acts as the gateway and located in the
centre of the lab. The other PC is the AP or anchor node. It
measured the SS of the indoor signal propagation in the
Telecommunication Lab in Electrical Engineering Buildings at
UTM. The two laptops act as MNs moving in any direction. At
each specified point, 100 samples of the SS readings were recorded
for four different orientations, and the average was used as the SS
at that point in each orientation. Figure 3.1 illustrates how the SS
varies with logarithm of distance and also the variation due the
orientation of the receiver. The results show a variation up to
12dBm on the SS at the same point for different orientations. The
average value and the curve-fitting of the data recorded are shown
in Figure 3.2.
28 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
Figure 3.1 Signal Variations
Figure 3.2 Average Result
Indoor Location Tracking in Mobile Ad Hoc Network 29
(MANET) using RSSI
The condition for R2 to be a minimum is that:
= 0 and ∂ R2
= 0 ?4?
However, b is constant in equation (1) and is equal to 32 in the test
bed for d0 = 1m so we do not need partial derivatives for b. From
equations (3) and (4), we have:
yi− b+ axi
xi= 0 ?? ?5?
Equation (5) is simplified to become:
In this test bed, a=10n=24.05 as derived from equation (6).
3.3.3 Location Determination
The software required in this test bed is Linux Kernel version 2.4,
Tcl and Tk, Kernel AODV, wireless tools library and the test bed
programs. Tcl and Tk is the Graphical User Interface (GUI) for
the Linux used in this test bed. The neighbouring nodes can be
detected by using beacons of Kernel AODV program . After
30 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
the absence of a certain number of successive beacons, it is
concluded that the node is no longer of a neighbour. The test bed
programs used wireless tools library to detect signal strength of all
neighbours. In this test bed, a map of location tracking is drawn at
the gateway. First step is determining location of one hop away
from gateway by calculating the distance between three nodes and
unknown MN. The triangulation calculation is used to determinate
the location tracking of unknown MN. Kernel AODV creates route
table and stores this route table at the gateway. The route table
contains information about all neighbours such as IP address, hop
count, next hop and information life time as shown in Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.3 Kernel AODV routing table
Gateway then determines the two-hop nodes and send request to
the intermediate nodes. Then position of multihops MN are
detected by adjusting the coordinate system of intermediate node
to become the coordinate system of gateway. The intermediate
node determines the location of the destination and sends the
results to gateway. Finally, the gateway determines location of
multihop nodes using summation of vectors. All these nodes are
shown via the Tcl and Tk program in Figure 3.4. This method is
modification of  which depends of time of arrival (TOA) to
calculate distance between MNs. The TOA is very small, in
nanoseconds, and it is very difficult to obtain this due the short
Indoor Location Tracking in Mobile Ad Hoc Network 31
(MANET) using RSSI
distances between MNs (25m). Also the time of execution to send
and receive commands is greater than the propagation time.
The interface program consists of four main routines. The
first routine identifies the location of the monitoring system either
inside or outside the lab. With this step if the monitoring system is
outside the lab, then equation 1 will be modified to include WAF.
WAF in this test bed is 6 dbm. The second routine is displaying
online information of all nodes in MANET. This information will
be updated every one second. The third routine is the online map
of all nodes in MANET. This map is also updated every one
second. The last routine prints the results as postscript file either
online or manual. The online print prints the result every one
second is shown in Figure 3.5.
Figure 3.4 GUI Display
32 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
Figure 3.5 The print result in GUI program
This project has presented the implementation of location tracking
for MNs in MANET. The gateway and fixed nodes were equipped
with USB Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) card and MNs
were equipped with the Orinoco WaveLan card driver. Tcl and Tk,
Kernel AODV and wireless tools have been setup in all the nodes
and the map of monitoring system is drawn at the gateway. This
location tracking can be used as a location service in location-
based routing protocol. Nodes intending to transmit packets will
request the location of the destination from the gateway and hence
forward the packets using any routing metrics such as power
aware, shortest path or link stability in the geographic forwarding
protocol. For the sake of simplicity, we present the algorithm in
two-dimension, but it can be easily extended to provide position
information in three-dimension.
 Z.Guang, A. Seneviratne, R. Chan and P. Chumchu,” A
Software Based Indoor Relative Location Management
Indoor Location Tracking in Mobile Ad Hoc Network 33
(MANET) using RSSI
Communications, Canada, 2002.
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positioning System,” Proc. of the IEEE, pp. 3-172, January
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Badge location system”, ACM Transactions on Information
Systems, pp. 91–102, Jan. 1992.
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“The anatomy of a contextaware application”, ACM
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RADAR user location and tracking system”, Technical
report, Microsoft Research, Feb. 2000.
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RF-based user location and tracking system”, INFOCOM,
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Position-based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Network”, IEEE
Network Magazine, November 2001.
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Practice”,. (Prentice Hall, 2002).
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Pirtle, USA 2003, pp. 344-345
 Jun-Zhao Sun, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: An Essential
Technology for Pervasive Computing”, International
Conferences on Info-tech & Info-net, Beijing, China, 2001.
 ORiNOCO PC card User Guide.
 O’Hara and A. Petrick, The IEEE802.11 Handbook: a
designer’s Companion. (Standard Information Network,
IEEE Press, 1999).
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Proceedings of Wireless and Optical
GPS. available at
POWER REDUCTION QUADRANTBASED
PROTOCOL (QDIR) IN MOBILE AD HOC
Liza .A. Latiff
Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a peer‐to‐peer wireless
infrastructureless network where communication among
nodes can be made and setup almost immediately especially in
emergency and disaster operations, military battlefield and
even in a building for security and surveillance [1,2].
Routing in MANET is a challenging task because of the
mobility of nodes and more than 50 MANET routing protocols
have been proposed. Various routing metrics usually used are
shortest path, link stability and minimum number of hops
towards the destination. But, recent routing metrics that have
been extensively researched are power conservation and
optimized bandwidth because mobile nodes in MANET are
stand‐alone devices and operate on batteries.
Routing protocol in MANET can be categorized into
topology‐based  and position‐based protocols . In the
former, on‐demand or proactive flooding of route request
(RREQ) are broadcast at each node to all neighbors to detect
routes and are generally considered to be not scalable.
However, in position‐based protocol, routing is optimized by
36 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
making use of geographical information available at each node.
The location information of the destination are assume
available by a position service while location information of
the neighbors are made known through beaconing to all
neighbors. It is assumed that nodes can locate themselves via
self‐positioning system or remote positioning system proposed
so far. Position‐based protocols are further categorized into
greedy forwarding and restricted flooding . In greedy
forwarding , based on location information of the
destination node, source node will select the node with the
best progress towards the destination. The location
information of the destination will then be inserted in their
data packet and unicast to the selected node. Upon receiving
the unicast data packet, the selected node will then select the
best node among its neighbors and the process continues until
the data packet reaches the destination. Greedy forwarding
only works in specific topology as stated in  and several
work proposed recovery techniques to overcome voids.
However, with location information, restricted flooding can be
implemented whereby limited nodes will participate in the
flooding and not network‐wide participation. As the name
implies, in restricted flooding, nodes that are located nearer to
the destination or in a forwarding zone, will broadcast the
packet. Distance and forwarding zone information are
computed at the respective nodes to determine their progress
towards destination. These nodes will then broadcast the
packet and the process is repeated at each intermediate node
until it reaches the destination.
The routing protocols proposed so far require complex
mathematical computation and to consider test bed
implementation of the routing protocol in the kernel
environment, these computations will incur further processing
delay in the current node [6, 7]. In addition, position‐based
protocol requires local topology updates via periodic
beaconing among the neighbors. It is shown in  that by
Power Reduction QuadrantBased Directional Routing 37
Protocol (Q-DIR) in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
inserting location information of the source node or the
previous intermediate node in the data packet, periodic
beaconing can be eliminated which will reduce further the
routing overhead. Based on these factors, we proposed Q‐DIR
that will limit the broadcast area to a quadrant where the
source node and destination are located. This algorithm will
only require a simple mathematical computation in the kernel
environment which does not incur processing delay but in fact
further reduces the end‐to‐end delay due to path accumulation
(PA) feature [9,10]. This paper will present the algorithm of Q‐
DIR and the simulation work carried out in a dense network of
49 nodes. The effect of varying simulation time and varying
transmission rate are studied and analyzed. The remainder of
this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 will present
related work on restricted flooding in position‐based routing
protocol and test bed implementation of MANET routing
protocols. The algorithm of Q‐DIR will be described in Section
3 followed by Section 4 which will present the network
simulation model and Section 5 will present the results
followed by Section 6 which concludes the paper.
4.2 RELATED WORK
With the advent of Global Positioning System (GPS)  and
MANET environment‐based self‐positioning  and remote‐
positioning system [13, 14], location information can be easily
disseminated to the requesting node as required in the
position‐based routing protocol. Only position‐based routing
protocols utilizes location information of the destination node
to select the node with the best progress as in greedy
forwarding or to limit the flooding region based on distance,
angle and distance covered by the next intermediate node. It
also requires an up‐to‐date local topology via periodic
beaconing. Hence, the route discovery can be eliminated and
only data packet forwarding are employed until it reaches the
38 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
destination. In this paper, only restricted flooding routing
protocols are considered.
4.2.1 Restricted flooding
In [15, 16, and 17], distance from the node to the destination is
used to determine nodes participation in the route discovery
process. Nodes that are further away from source will not
participate. LAR  calculates distance from the destination
based on location information of the destination that will be
extracted from the request packet while  uses the relative
neighborhood graph (RNG) which together with local
information of distance to neighbours and distances between
neighbours will minimize the total energy consumption while
still maintaining the whole network coverage through
broadcasting. LGF  calculates distances to all nodes in the
network and will compare the distance information of the
source to the destination extracted from the request packet to
determine its participation. On the other hand, ARP  and
DREAM  uses the angle made from the straight line drawn
from source to destination as the restricted region whereby all
nodes in this region will participate in the route discovery.
However, DDB  uses the location information of the
destination node and also of the intermediate node which are
inserted in the request packet. With this additional
information, an intermediate node can calculate the estimated
additional covered area that it would cover with its
transmission which is based on Dynamic Forwarding Delay
(DFD). The concept of DFD is to determine when to forward
the packet and node with more area covered will be given a
smaller delay to broadcast and hence, will broadcast it first. All
the proposed protocols require computation of the distance
and angle at all intermediate nodes to determine the nodes
that are located in the forwarding region.
Power Reduction QuadrantBased Directional Routing 39
Protocol (Q-DIR) in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Location information of destination node is sent in the
request packet as in [15, 16, 17, 18 and 19] but  send the
source node as well.
4.2.2 Implementation Environment
Among the reactive protocols that are actively researched and
in fact have been upgraded to Recommended for Comments
(RFC) in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) are Ad‐
hoc On‐demand Distance Vector (AODV)  and Dynamic
Source Routing (DSR) . Between them, there are several
drawbacks and advantages and work to converge these two
protocols are submitted to IETF as an Internet‐Draft and are
called AODVbis  which was based on the work reported in
. The protocol optimizes AODV to perform effectively in
terms of routing overhead and delay during high load. The
differences between AODVbis
accumulation in the RREQ and RREP packet, more efficient
beaconing, adding Originator Sequence Number in RREP and
lastly, removal of precursors list.
There are two approaches to consider when developing
a MANET testbed; kernel environment or the user space.
Several test bed implementation were developed as reported
in  that shows that developing MANET routing protocol in
the kernel reduces the user‐kernel crossings inherent in user
domain testbed implementation.
mathematical computation in kernel cannot be employed due
to the floating point problem . Therefore, considering the
mathematical computation constraints
environment, a simple comparison made on‐the fly with the
relevant location information extracted from the request
packet will be used as proposed in Q‐DIR. This information
will determine the quadrant both source and destination node
are located and intermediate nodes that received this
broadcast will compare its location compared to source and
and AODV are path
by the kernel
40 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP Download full-text
destination and then decide to broadcast or not. With
restricted flooding based on quadrant, and the path
accumulation feature in AODVbis, the number of nodes
participating in the route discovery will be reduced and hence
reduces the routing overhead, and consequently total power
consumption. Figure 4.1 show the participating nodes if total
flooding is employed that will result in the more routing
packets being broadcast in the network. On the other hand, if
restricted flooding is employed based on the same quadrant an
intermediate is located compared to source and destination,
less nodes will participate in the routing process which will
reduce the number of routing packets that traverse through
the network as shown in Figure 4.2.
Figure 4.1 Participating nodes in total flooding algorithm