Development of an indoor GPS-free self-positioning system for mobile ad hoc network (MANET)
ABSTRACT Position location (PL) has been an important and motivating criterion in position-based routing protocols which will reduce routing overhead. Several PL technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS), the active badge system, the bat system and the cricket compass system have been proposed. GPS technology is very useful outdoor but quite ineffective indoors because walls in buildings block GPS transmissions. Other systems mentioned above are hardware-based which require additional devices for signal transmission and this will significantly incur additional cost of installation and maintenance. In this paper, the development of a GPS-free, simple self-positioning system to be implemented in MANET are presented where the node itself determines its location from hello message signals received that are being broadcast at intervals from specifically identified stationary nodes. Location of all nodes will be based on a global coordinate system which will provide a simpler routing task in any position-based routing protocol. The proposed system will be economically developed since the hardware required are laptops or PDAs with a standard IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN card which will have a relative large transmission coverage compared to Bluetooth and infrared signals.
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ABSTRACT: Mobile wireless sensor network (MWSN) is a wireless ad hoc network that consists of a very large number of tiny sensor nodes communicating with each other in which sensor nodes are either equipped with motors for active mobility or attached to mobile objects for passive mobility. A real-time routing protocol for MWSN is an exciting area of research because messages are delivered according to their end-to-end deadlines. MWSN demands real-time routing in many applications including disasters fighting, forest fire detection and volcanic eruption detection. This paper proposes a novel idea of real-time that provides mobility and load distribution (RTMLD) for MWSN. RTMLD utilised corona mechanism and optimal forwarding metrics to forward the data packet in MWSN. It computes the optimal forwarding node based on RSSI, remaining battery level of sensor nodes and packet delay over one-hop. RTMLD ensures high packet delivery ratio and experiences minimum end-to-end delay in WSN and MWSN compared with baseline routing protocol. RTMLD has been successfully verified through test bed and simulation experiment. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Ahmed, A.A. and Fisal, N. (2014) 'A real-time routing protocol with mobility support and load distribution for mobile wireless sensor networks', Int. J.. Currently, he is an Assistant Professor at King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh, Saudi Arabia. He is interesting in MANET, mobile WSN, location tracking, security and distributed systems in WSN, and underground WSN. He published many journal and conference papers and he worked reviewer and technical committee in some conferences.Int. J. of Sensor Networks. 04/2014; 15(2).
First Edition 2008
© SHARIFAH HAFIZAH SYED ARIFFIN & FATIMAH MOHAMAD 2008
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Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim, Malaysia.
Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Implementation of ad hoc network in mobile IP / editors Sharifah Hafizah
Syed Ariffin, Fatimah Mohamad.
1. Wireless communication systems. 2. Computer network. I. Sharifah
Hafizah Syed Ariffin. II. Fatimah Mohamad.
Editor: Sharifah Hafizah Syed Ariffin & Rakan
Pereka Kulit: Mohd Nazir Md. Basri & Mohd Asmawidin Bidin
Diatur huruf oleh / Typeset by
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik
Diterbitkan di Malaysia oleh / Published in Malaysia by
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
34 – 38, Jln. Kebudayaan 1, Taman Universiti,
Johor Darul Ta’zim, MALAYSIA.
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MALAYSIAN BOOK PUBLISHERS ASSOCIATION dengan no. keahlian 9101)
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Routing Protocols in Wireless
Mobile Ad Hoc Network - A
Liza Abdul Latiff
Chapter 2 Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc
Network into Mobile IPv6
Adel Ali, Liza A.Latiff
Chapter 3 Indoor Location tracking in
Mobile Ad Hoc Network
(MANET) Using RSSI
Adel Ali, Liza A.Latiff
Chapter 4 Power Reduction Quadrant-
based Directional Routing
Protocol (QDIR) In Mobile Ad
Chapter 5 Network Performance of a Multi-
hop Quadrant-based Directional
Routing Protocol (QDIR) in
Wireless Ad Hoc Network
Location-based Geocasting and
protocol in mobile
Development Of An Indoor Gps-
Free Self-Positioning System For
Mobile Ad Hoc Network (Manet)
Liza A.Latiff, Adel. Ali
GPS-Free Indoor Geometry-
Based Location Tracking In
Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Liza A. Latiff
Implementation Of A Quadrant-
Chapter 9 114
Based Directional Routing
Protocol (Q-Dir) In Wireless
Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Chapter 10 Reduced Latency In Restricted
Flooding Routing Protocol For
Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Mohd. Shahril Abdullah
This book chapter consists of a collection of papers focusing on the
topic “Wireless Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP”. It starts with a
review of the routing protocols in wireless mobile ad hoc network.
It then proceeds to the explanation of integrating mobile ad hoc
network into mobile IPv6. The use of mobile ad hoc mobile
(MANET) for indoor location tracking using RSSI were later
explored in Chapter 3. A power reduction in quadrant-based
directional routing protocol (Q-DIR) in MANET were later
explained in Chapter 4. The book chapter ends with a network
performance of a multi hop Q-DIR in a wireless ad hoc network.
Sharifah Hafizah Syed Ariffin
Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS
MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK –
Liza Abdul Latiff
Mobile ad hoc network or MANET has evolved since the 80s with
the formation of the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
MANET working group. Subsequently, a.chaner was published in
[I] with the objective of developing a solution framework for
routing in ad hoc network.
An ad hoc network is a collection of mobile devices that
can dynamically move and can reorganize themselves and
communicate over wireless links. These mobile devices are also
autonomous nodes, which serve as routers that forward packets
onto the next link. There is no centralized or central server that
organizes routing of these packets. Packets are forwarded in a
peer-to-peer mode via multihop path to their respective
destinations. Routing to the destination is established at the nodes,
which needs to be determined before or after the reception of
An ad hoc network consists of mobile platforms known as
nodes, 'which are free to move around arbitrarily. These nodes,
which are very small, may be located in buildings, trucks, and cars
or maybe on a battlefield. Each node is equipped with a wireless
antenna that receives and transmits in an isotropic manner, directed
or steer able or a combination of all three. Nodes are stand-alone
devices and operate using batteries. From a global point of view,
2 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
an ad hoc network is network with no infrastructure, easily set up
in minimal time.
Due to the mobility of nodes in MANET, topology of these
networks change unpredictably and routing in one of the main
issues. Even though nodes can self-organized themselves to form
a network, much research work has been done to come up with the
most suitable routing protocol for a certain implementation.
Efficient routing of packets, methods to conserve energy at nodes,
mobility pattern of nodes are some issues considered. Most of the
work done by researchers in research institutes and universities are
on the routing algorithm.
1.2 CHARACTERISTICS AND CHALLENGES
The characteristics and challenges of ad hoc and sensor network
can be divided into four main areas such as:
• Topology. Since nodes are free to move, network topology
of ad hoc network are ever changing. Nodes are also
routers therefore, efficient routing protocol must be
considered so that packets reach their destination in the
shortest time and with no errors.
• Bandwidth. Comparing
infrastructure, usable bandwidth in ad hoc network are
much lower. This is due to mulitpath fading, noise and
interference inherent in wireless transmission. Methods to
improve and increase the available bandwidth needs to be
• Power. Nodes in an ad hoc network rely on battery for their
source of energy. Energy saving methods must he taken
into account to sustain stability and longetivity of nodes.
• Security. Ad hoc network are exposed to eavesdroppings
and spoofing. But because of the decentralised nature of ad
wireless links to wired
Routing Protocols in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network 3
hoc network, node failure is a localised to the affected node
only and minimal effect to the whole network.
ROUTING AND DESIGN OBJECTIVES
Routing is a process of identifying a path from a source to a
destination before or after a request for transmission. Routing
protocol selected must be reachable and loop free. If a node failure
occurs, a cache of backup routing will be required.
Routes chosen are the shortest path between source and
destination via fewer .intermediate nodes. Computing of routes are
decentralized and done at every node and separated from the
higher levels of OSI since network topology changes dynamically.
To reduce monitoring and updating overhead, route computation
must involve few, nodes only and not nodes that have no traffic.
Furthermore, few nodes involvement means less energy usage or
none at all at other nodes.
Since ad hoc network are self-organized, broadcasting to all
nodes must be avoided because it will create flooding at the nodes.
Alternative routes should also be identified to act as backup if a
node failure occurs. One the major challenges in designing a
routing protocol for ad hoc network is to determine a trade off
between information reachability and route updating cost because
network topology changes with time as the node moves to a new
The various routing protocol proposed so far can be
classified into two main broad categories: proactive and reactive
protocols. Proactive protocols are routing algorithm that will
periodically and continuously update routes in the network so that
when a packet need to be transmitted, routes to the destination are
already known and can be forwarded straight away. Destination-
Sequenced Distance Vector routing (DSDV) , Wireless Routing
Protocol (WRP)  are examples of proactive protocol. On the
other hand, reactive protocols are routing algorithms that will
initiate route computation only on demand. Examples of these
4 Implementation of Ad Hoc Network in Mobile IP
reactive protocols are ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV)
, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) , temporally ordered
routing algorithm (TORA) , Signal Stability-based Routing
(SSR)  and Associativity-Based Routing (ABR) .
Proactive schemes posed a negligible delay since route
.discovery to destinations have to be done periodically and before a
request is made. On the contrary, reactive protocols need time to
determine routes, which are not available at that time. Proactive
schemes, which have minimal delay, uses the whole network
capacity to update routes and in some cases the routes determined
may not he used at all. Nevertheless, in both schemes; a flood of
route queries need to be sent to all nodes and this leads to message
collisions and channel contention, This is known as broadcast
storm problem . Due to this long delay and requirement for
traffic control, pure reactive routing may he sufficient for real-time
From these scenarios, what ad hoc network needs is a hybrid
protocol: a hybrid of proactive and reactive scheme. Hybrid
protocol initiates route discovery procedure on-demand but at
limited updating cost. An example of this is the Zone Routing
Protocol (ZRP) proposed by  and further improved as in .
Besides ZRP, we have Fisheye State Routing , Landmark
Routing (LANMAR)  and location aided routing (LAR) 
and Distance Routing Affect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM)
. These protocols use landmarks, location and distance of
nodes to reduce updating costs.
1.4 METRICS USED IN
The issue.of routing in mobile ad hoc network is different from
other wireless network and is very difficult due to mobility and no
network infrastructure. We are faced with two conflicting issues:
one is to optimize routes which means we need frequent . topology
updates and on the other hand, frequent updates requires high
Routing Protocols in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network 5
The most common metric used to determine optimal path is
minimum number of hops or intermediates nodes as in DSDV,
AODV, DSR, TOM, WRP Figure 1.1 shows how DSR is
implemented and the route selected is via node 2 and 7 for source 1
to destination 8, which has the minimum number of hops.
Link quality is also a metric that is used.in SSR and ABR.
Routes are selected based on the signal strength between nodes and
stability of the connection. This will ensure nodes chosen will he.
less prone to failure and hence a high probability of reaching
In ZRP, nodes updates are localized to a certain zone radius
only. Nodes will be updated proactively so that transmission to
neighboring nodes will he fast where else nodes outside this zone
will be updated on need to basis or on-demand.
Figure 1.1 DSR with minimum number of hops
Node distance is also used as a metric that will ,affect the
frequency of node updates as in DREAM. Nodes update overhead
is reduced because nodes will send updates only when it moves
from its original location. . Another type of metrics that is based of
available power is proposed by .and shows a reduction in cost
of routing packets via the shortest-hop routing by 5-30%. This
new metric will ensure the mean time to node failure is increased
significantly with no increase in packet delays.
The routing protocols mentioned above are based on flat
routing where nodes are on the same level and maintains a routing
table with enmes for all nodes and hence for the whole network.
This approach is suitable for small networks and for scalable