Genetic structure of native circumpolar populations based on autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome DNA markers.
ABSTRACT This study investigates the genetic structure of the present-day inhabitants of Beringia in order to answer questions concerning their origins and evolution. According to recent studies, the ancestors of Native Americans paused for a time in Beringia, during which they differentiated genetically from other Asians before peopling the New World. Furthermore, the Koryaks of Kamchatka share a "ubiquitous" allele (D9S1120) with Native Americans, indicating they may have descended from the same ancestral Beringian population that gave rise to the New World founders. Our results show that a genetic barrier exists between Kamchatkans (Koryaks and Even) and Bering Island inhabitants (Aleuts, mixed Aleuts, and Russians), based on Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) and structure analysis of nine autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs). This is supported by mitochondrial DNA evidence, but not by analysis of Y chromosome markers, as recent non-native male admixture into the region appears to have partially obscured ancient population relationships. Our study indicates that while Aleuts are descended from the original New World founders, the Koryaks are unlikely to represent a Beringian remnant of the ancestral population that gave rise to Native Americans. They are instead, like the Even, more recent arrivals to Kamchatka from interior Siberia, and the "ubiquitous" allele in Koryaks may result from recent gene flow from Chukotka. Genbank accession numbers for mtDNA sequences: GQ922935-GQ922973.
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ABSTRACT: Evenks and Evens, Tungusic-speaking reindeer herders and hunter-gatherers, are spread over a wide area of northern Asia, whereas their linguistic relatives the Udegey, sedentary fishermen and hunter-gatherers, are settled to the south of the lower Amur River. The prehistory and relationships of these Tungusic peoples are as yet poorly investigated, especially with respect to their interactions with neighbouring populations. In this study, we analyse over 500 complete mtDNA genome sequences from nine different Evenk and even subgroups as well as their geographic neighbours from Siberia and their linguistic relatives the Udegey from the Amur-Ussuri region in order to investigate the prehistory of the Tungusic populations. These data are supplemented with analyses of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and STR haplotypes in the Evenks, Evens, and neighbouring Siberian populations. We demonstrate that whereas the North Tungusic Evenks and Evens show evidence of shared ancestry both in the maternal and in the paternal line, this signal has been attenuated by genetic drift and differential gene flow with neighbouring populations, with isolation by distance further shaping the maternal genepool of the Evens. The Udegey, in contrast, appear quite divergent from their linguistic relatives in the maternal line, with a mtDNA haplogroup composition characteristic of populations of the Amur-Ussuri region. Nevertheless, they show affinities with the Evenks, indicating that they might be the result of admixture between local Amur-Ussuri populations and Tungusic populations from the north.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83570. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Different data types have previously been shown to have the same microevolutionary patterns in worldwide data sets. However, peopling of the New World studies have shown a difference in migration paths and timings using multiple types of data, spurring research to understand why this is the case. This study was designed to test the degree of similarity in evolutionary patterns by using cranial and dental metric and nonmetric data, along with Y-chromosome DNA and mtDNA. The populations used included Inuits from Alaska, Canada, Siberia, Greenland, and the Aleutian Islands. For comparability, the populations used for the cranial and molecular data were from similar geographic regions or had a shared population history. Distance, R and kinship matrices were generated for use in running Mantel tests, PROTEST analyses, and Procrustes analyses. A clear patterning was seen, with the craniometric data being most highly correlated to the mtDNA data and the cranial nonmetric data being most highly correlated with the Y-chromosome data, while the phenotypic data were also linked. This patterning is suggestive of a possible male or female inheritance, or the correlated data types are affected by the same or similar evolutionary forces. The results of this study indicate cranial traits have some degree of heritability. Moreover, combining data types leads to a richer knowledge of biological affinity. This understanding is important for bioarchaeological contexts, in particular, peopling of the New World studies where focusing on reconciling the results from comparing multiple data types is necessary to move forward. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Physical Anthropology 03/2014; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: This study examined whether cultural factors, as compared to geographical distance, have produced a population sub-structure among different groups from the La Guajira population (Amerindian Wayúu and other resident groups) that co-exist within the same region. Aims: The aims of this study were to analyse this population to discover whether cultural barriers result in the sub-structure, to evaluate whether there is a genetic drift effect and to describe migration dynamics using a genetic, genealogical and demographic approach. Subjects: This study examined a sample of 290 individuals who were grouped based on a genealogical criterion to distinguish between native individuals and migrants. Materials and methods: Using demographic information, the age and gender structure of the population and genetic drift estimators were analysed. Using 15 autosomal microsatellites, heterozygosity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), inbreeding, sub-structure, recent migration rate and genetic relationships were also evaluated using a Principal Component analysis (PCA) using reference populations. Results: La Guajira is a young population that is growing and exposed to a moderate effect of genetic drift (Neme 11.903). The Wayúu are highly diverse (Ho 0.727) and different from other groups, with the exception of Wayúu-Guajiro. This trend was also observed in other Amerindian populations. Conclusion: This study found a high level of admixture and gene flow within the Wayúu population despite cultural differences. Thus, although the Wayúu population differs from other population groups, it is not an isolated population.Annals of Human Biology 03/2013; 40(2):119-131. · 1.48 Impact Factor