This study investigates the genetic structure of the present-day inhabitants of Beringia in order to answer questions concerning their origins and evolution. According to recent studies, the ancestors of Native Americans paused for a time in Beringia, during which they differentiated genetically from other Asians before peopling the New World. Furthermore, the Koryaks of Kamchatka share a "ubiquitous" allele (D9S1120) with Native Americans, indicating they may have descended from the same ancestral Beringian population that gave rise to the New World founders. Our results show that a genetic barrier exists between Kamchatkans (Koryaks and Even) and Bering Island inhabitants (Aleuts, mixed Aleuts, and Russians), based on Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) and structure analysis of nine autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs). This is supported by mitochondrial DNA evidence, but not by analysis of Y chromosome markers, as recent non-native male admixture into the region appears to have partially obscured ancient population relationships. Our study indicates that while Aleuts are descended from the original New World founders, the Koryaks are unlikely to represent a Beringian remnant of the ancestral population that gave rise to Native Americans. They are instead, like the Even, more recent arrivals to Kamchatka from interior Siberia, and the "ubiquitous" allele in Koryaks may result from recent gene flow from Chukotka. Genbank accession numbers for mtDNA sequences: GQ922935-GQ922973.
"The results of the analysis were given to the communities prior to writing up the results for scientific publication. Comparative data were obtained from studies published on mitochondrial HVRI from Greenlandic and Canadian Inuit (Saillard et al., 2000; Helgason et al., 2006), ancient Paleo-and Neo-Eskimos (Gilbert et al., 2008; Raghavan et al., 2014), ancient and contemporary Aleuts (Rubicz et al., 2003; Zlojutro et al., 2006; Rubicz et al., 2010; Raff et al., 2010), and Chuckchi and Siberian Eskimo sequences (Starikovskaya et al., 1998; Derenko et al., 2007; Tam et al., 2007; Achilli et al., 2008; Gilbert et al., 2008; Derenko et al., 2010; Dryomov et al., in press). We did not include the data of Shields et al. (1993), because of suspected sequencing errors (see Forster et al., 1996; Saillard et al., 2000). "
"Y STR analysis has also been shown to provide a non-invasive means first for performing fetal sex determination  and later for fetal male paternity analysis using maternal plasma DNA starting at as little as 12 weeks of gestation  . Y STRs have also been used to investigate male lineages     and infer patterns of migration    . In an interesting example, four-marker Y STR haplotypes were used to exclude a male individual from the ancient Königsfelder paternal lineage despite archaeological evidence indicating a patrilineal association . "
"Circle sizes are proportional to the number of mtDNA's with that haplotype. The data have been taken from published and unpublished sources (N = 35): (Der Sarkissian et al., 2013; Ingman and Gyllensten, 2007; Kaessmann et al., 2002; Kong et al., 2003; Li et al., 2007; Mishmar et al., 2003; Moilanen et al., 2003; Rubicz et al., 2010; Sajantila et al., 1995), (GenBank: FJ493515.1). modern Polish population is estimated as 1 per 100 individuals (Southern et al., 2007; EWGCFG, 1990). "
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