Ack1 Mediated AKT/PKB Tyrosine 176 Phosphorylation Regulates Its Activation

Drug Discovery Program, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 03/2010; 5(3):e9646. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009646
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The AKT/PKB kinase is a key signaling component of one of the most frequently activated pathways in cancer and is a major target of cancer drug development. Most studies have focused on its activation by Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) mediated Phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) activation or loss of Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN). We have uncovered that growth factors binding to RTKs lead to activation of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Ack1 (also known as ACK or TNK2), which directly phosphorylates AKT at an evolutionarily conserved tyrosine 176 in the kinase domain. Tyr176-phosphorylated AKT localizes to the plasma membrane and promotes Thr308/Ser473-phosphorylation leading to AKT activation. Mice expressing activated Ack1 specifically in the prostate exhibit AKT Tyr176-phosphorylation and develop murine prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPINs). Further, expression levels of Tyr176-phosphorylated-AKT and Tyr284-phosphorylated-Ack1 were positively correlated with the severity of disease progression, and inversely correlated with the survival of breast cancer patients. Thus, RTK/Ack1/AKT pathway provides a novel target for drug discovery.

Download full-text


Available from: Rebecca S Cook, Jun 29, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ack family non-receptor tyrosine kinases are unique with regard to their domain composition and regulatory properties. Human Ack1 (activated Cdc42-associated kinase) is ubiquitously expressed and is activated by signals that include growth factors and integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Stimulation leads to Ack1 autophosphorylation and to phosphorylation of additional residues in the C-terminus. The N-terminal SAM domain is required for full activation. Ack1 exerts some of its effects via protein-protein interactions that are independent of its kinase activity. In the basal state, Ack1 activity is suppressed by an intramolecular interaction between the catalytic domain and the C-terminal region. Inappropriate Ack1 activation and signaling has been implicated in the development, progression, and metastasis of several forms of cancer. Thus, there is increasing interest in Ack1 as a drug target, and studies of the regulatory properties of the enzyme may reveal features that can be exploited in inhibitor design.
    02/2011; 2011:742372. DOI:10.1155/2011/742372
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the progression of both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC). Ligand-independent activation of AR in AIPC or castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is often associated with poor prognosis. Recently, tyrosine kinase Ack1 has been shown to regulate AR activity by phosphorylating it at tyrosine 267 and this event was shown to be critical for AIPC growth. However, whether a small molecule inhibitor that can mitigate Ack1 activation is sufficient to abrogate AR activity on AR regulated promoters in androgen-depleted environment is not known. We have generated two key resources, antibodies that specifically recognize pTyr267-AR and synthesized a small molecule inhibitor of Ack1, 4-amino-5,6-biaryl-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (named here as AIM-100) to test whether AIM-100 modulates ligand-independent AR activity and inhibits prostate cell growth. Prostate tissue microarray analysis indicates that Ack1 Tyr284 phosphorylation correlates positively with disease progression and negatively with the survival of prostate cancer patients. Interestingly, neither pTyr267-AR expression nor its transcriptional activation was affected by anti-androgens in activated Ack1 expressing or EGF stimulated prostate cells. However, the Ack1 inhibitor, AIM-100, not only inhibited Ack1 activation but also able to suppress pTyr267-AR phosphorylation, binding of AR to PSA, NKX3.1, and TMPRSS2 promoters, and inhibit AR transcription activity. Ack1 Tyr284 phosphorylation is prognostic of progression of prostate cancer and inhibitors of Ack1 activity could be novel therapeutic agents to treat AIPC.
    The Prostate 01/2010; 70(12):1274-85. DOI:10.1002/pros.21163 · 3.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ack1 (also known as ACK, TNK2, or activated Cdc42 kinase) is a structurally unique non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is expressed in diverse cell types. It integrates signals from plethora of ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), for example, MERTK, EGFR, HER2, PDGFR and insulin receptor to initiate intracellular signaling cascades. Ack1 transduces extracellular signals to cytosolic and nuclear effectors such as the protein kinase AKT/PKB and androgen receptor (AR), to promote cell survival and growth. While tyrosine phosphorylation of AR at Tyr267 regulates androgen-independent recruitment of AR to the androgen-responsive enhancers and transcription of AR target genes to drive prostate cancer progression, phosphorylation of an evolutionarily conserved Tyrosine 176 in the kinase domain of AKT is essential for mitotic progression and positively correlates with breast cancer progression. In contrast to AR and AKT, Ack1-mediated phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor Wwox at Tyr287 lead to rapid Wwox polyubiquitination followed by degradation. Thus, by its ability to promote tumor growth by negatively regulating tumor suppressor such as Wwox and positively regulating pro-survival factors such as AKT and AR, Ack1 is emerging as a critical player in cancer biology. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the physiological functions of Ack1 signaling in normal cells and the consequences of its hyperactivation in various cancers.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 08/2010; 224(2):327-33. DOI:10.1002/jcp.22162 · 3.87 Impact Factor