Serum Oxidized Protein and Prostate Cancer Risk within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Cancer Prevention Research (Impact Factor: 4.44). 03/2010; 3(4):478-83. DOI: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0201
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in prostate cancer risk, we analyzed serum levels of protein carbonyl groups in 1,808 prostate cancer cases and 1,805 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. There were no significant differences in protein carbonyl levels in baseline samples between those later diagnosed with prostate cancer and those without at the end of study biopsy. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the 4th quartile of protein carbonyl level for the combined, placebo, and finasteride arms were 1.03 (95% CI, 0.85-1.24), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.69-1.12), and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.94-1.71), respectively. There were no significant associations between carbonyl level and risk when analyzing high-grade and low-grade disease separately, nor did finasteride affect protein oxidation levels. The results of this large nested case-control study do not support the hypothesis that oxidative stress, at least as measured by protein carbonyl level, plays a role in prostate cancer.

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    • "Hoque et al analyzed the serum levels of protein carbonyl groups (a marker of OS) in 1,808 PC cases and 1,805 controls nested in the prostate cancer prevention trail [21]. The study reported that despite the effect of reduced DHT levels by Finasteride, there were no significant associations between serum OS and PC risk. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prostatic oxidative stress (OS) is androgen-regulated and a key event in the development of prostate cancer (PC). Thus, reducing prostatic OS is an attractive target for PC prevention strategies. We sought to determine if the individual's prostatic OS status can be determined by examining the OS in surrogate androgen regulated tissues from the same host. Adult male rats were divided equally into three groups: (A-) underwent bilateral orchiectomy, (A+) received continuous testosterone supplementation or (C) were eugonadal. Serum testosterone, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and anti-oxidative capacity (AOC) were determined after 72 hrs and the prostate, salivary glands and the hair follicles' Dermal Papillary Cells (DPC) from each animal were harvested, embedded into tissue microarray and examined for the expression of 8-OHdG by immuno-staining. Multi-variate regression was used to analyze inter-individual differences in OS staining within each androgen group and if there was a correlation between serum testosterone, 8-OHdG or AOC and Prostatic OS in tissues of same host. At the group level, 8-OHdG staining intensity directly correlated with serum testosterone levels in all three target tissues (p>0.01, Mann-Whitney Test). Although different levels of prostatic OS were noted between rats with similar serum testosterone levels and similar systemic OS measurements (p<0.01), there were no intra-individual differences between the OS status of the prostate and DPC (p<0.05). The level of prostatic OS is correlated with the OS of hair follicles and salivary glands, but not systemic OS. Moreover, systemic AOC negatively correlates with both prostatic and hair follicle OS. This suggests that hair follicle and salivary gland OS can serve as surrogate markers for the efficiency of OS reduction. This has tremendous potential for the rational evaluation of patient response to prevention strategies.
    PLoS ONE 12/2010; 5(12):e15880. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0015880 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is known to be affected by the heavy metal levels and oxidative damage of the body, yet there are very few studies which look into the way it occurs. The aim of this study was to determine whether blood and tissue lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) levels are associated with oxidative damage in the context of prostate cancer progression and development. Seventy-nine patients comprising 25 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), 23 patients with malignant prostatic carcinoma (malign Ca), 16 patients with low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (LGPIN), and 15 patients with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) diagnosed on the basis of their clinical profile, transrectal ultrasonography, and histopathology were included in this study. Cd and Pb levels in whole blood were found to be increased in patients with HGPIN compared with the BPH group; also, the levels of Cd in whole blood and tissue were found to be increasing in patients with malign Ca, unlike BPH patients. Moreover, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma and tissue were significantly increased in malign Ca, LGPIN, and HGPIN than those in BPH. However, the levels of tissue Pb were found to be decreasing in BPH, unlike the malign Ca and HGPIN patients, and the levels of tissue protein carbonyls in malign Ca were significantly lower than those in HGPIN. The levels of tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) in malign Ca were significantly lower than those in BPH. Additionally, the levels of Se in serum and tissue in LGPIN were significantly lower than those in BPH. The serum Se levels in HGPIN were also significantly lower than those in BPH and malign Ca groups. Furthermore, the concentrations of serum Se in LGPIN were significantly lower than those in malign Ca. From the Pearson correlation analysis, there were significant positive correlations between tissue Cd and MDA levels in malign Ca, LGPIN, and HGPIN and between the tissue Pb and tissue MDA and protein carbonyl levels in malign Ca. Blood Pb and tissue Pb were also significantly positively correlated with plasma MDA and protein carbonyl levels in malign Ca. In addition, blood Pb was significantly positively correlated with tissue MDA and protein carbonyl levels in malign Ca, and a significant positive correlation was also found between blood Cd and plasma protein carbonyls and tissue MDA in LGPIN. We observed that altered prooxidant-antioxidant balance and heavy metal levels may lead to an increase in oxidative damage and may consequently play an important role in prostate carcinogenesis. These findings indicate that changes in the levels of Pb, Cd, Se, MDA, protein carbonyls, and GSH in the blood and/or tissue are related to the prostatic carcinoma development and progression, although triggering one of the mentioned changes is unknown; therefore, further study is required to determine the exact steps of the process and clarify the roles of different substances in order to obtain a more detailed explanation of the phenomenon.
    Biological trace element research 08/2011; 145(1):23-32. DOI:10.1007/s12011-011-9162-2 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We review the potential value of sugar-borate esters (SBEs) in the chemo-preventive therapy of prostate cancer. We propose that SBEs act as boron (B) vehicles, increasing the concentration of borate inside cancer cells relative to normal cells. Increased intracellular concentration of borate activates borate transporters, but also leads to growth inhibition and apoptosis. The effects of SBEs on normal cells are less dramatic because SBEs are naturally-occurring biochemicals, common and abundant in some fruits and vegetables, and also because borate dissociated from SBEs in natural diet doses is easily exported from normal cells. Cancer cell lines that over-express sugar transporters or under-express borate export are potential targets for SBE-based therapy. With regard to efficiency against cancer cells and drug preparation requirements, trigonal cis-diol boric monoesters will be one of the most effective class of SBEs. Because negative correlation exists between borate intake and the incidence of prostate cancer, and because most cancer cells over-express sugar transporters, SBEs are proposed as a potential chemopreventive avenue in the fight against primary and recurrent prostate cancer.
    Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry 12/2012; 13(6). DOI:10.2174/18715206113139990124 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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