Long-term Variation in Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, EPS 8109, Bethesda, MD 20892-7240, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.32). 03/2010; 19(4):927-31. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-1121
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Molecular epidemiologic studies of vitamin D and risk of cancer and other health outcomes usually involve a single measurement of the biomarker 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in serum or plasma. However, the extent to which 25(OH)D concentration at a single time point is representative of an individual's long-term vitamin D status is unclear. To address this question, we evaluated within-person variability in 25(OH)D concentrations across serum samples collected at three time points over a 5-year period among 29 participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Blood collection took place year-round, although samples for a given participant were collected in the same month each year. The within-person coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated using variance components estimated from random effects models. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate agreement between measurements at different collection times (baseline, +1 year, +5 years). The within-subject coefficient of variation was 14.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 12.4-18.1%] and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.63-0.88). Spearman rank correlation coefficients comparing baseline to +1 year, +1 year to +5 years, and baseline to +5 years were 0.65 (95% CI, 0.37-0.82), 0.61 (0.29-0.81), and 0.53 (0.17-0.77), respectively. Slightly stronger correlations were observed after restricting to non-Hispanic Caucasian subjects. These findings suggest that serum 25(OH)D concentration at a single time point may be a useful biomarker of long-term vitamin D status in population-based studies of various diseases.


Available from: Ronald L Horst, Jun 16, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The debate on the causal association between vitamin D status, measured as serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and various health outcomes warrants investigation in large-scale health surveys. Measuring the 25(OH)D concentration for each participant is not always feasible, because of the logistics of blood collection and the costs of vitamin D testing. To address this problem, past research has used predicted 25(OH)D concentration, based on multivariable linear regression, as a proxy for unmeasured vitamin D status. We restate this approach in a mathematical framework, to deduce its possible pitfalls. Monte Carlo simulation and real data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-06 are used to confirm the deductions. The results indicate that variables that are used in the prediction model (for 25[OH]D concentration) but not in the model for the health outcome (called instrumental variables), play an essential role in the identification of an effect. Such variables should be unrelated to the health outcome other than through vitamin D; otherwise the estimate of interest will be biased. The approach of predicted 25(OH)D concentration derived from multivariable linear regression may be valid. However, careful verification that the instrumental variables are unrelated to the health outcome is required.
    PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0125551. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125551 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Knee osteoarthritis causes functional limitation and disability in the elderly. Vitamin D has biological functions on multiple knee joint structures and can play important roles in the progression of knee osteoarthritis. The metabolism of vitamin D is regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). The objective was to investigate whether serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and PTH, individually and jointly, predict the progression of knee osteoarthritis. Serum 25(OH)D and PTH were measured at the 30- or 36-mo visit in 418 participants enrolled in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) who had ≥1 knee with both symptomatic and radiographic osteoarthritis. Progression of knee osteoarthritis was defined as any increase in the radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN) score between the 24- and 48-mo OAI visits. The mean concentrations of serum 25(OH)D and PTH were 26.2 μg/L and 54.5 pg/mL, respectively. Approximately 16% of the population had serum 25(OH)D < 15 μg/L. Between the baseline and follow-up visits, 14% progressed in JSN score. Participants with low vitamin D [25(OH)D < 15 μg/L] had >2-fold elevated risk of knee osteoarthritis progression compared with those with greater vitamin D concentrations (≥15 μg/L; OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.5). High serum PTH (≥73 pg/mL) was not associated with a significant increase in JSN score. However, participants with both low vitamin D and high PTH had >3-fold increased risk of progression (OR: 3.2; 95%CI: 1.2, 8.4). Our results suggest that individuals deficient in vitamin D have an increased risk of knee osteoarthritis progression. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
    Journal of Nutrition 12/2014; 144(12):2002-8. DOI:10.3945/jn.114.193227 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During growth, severe vitamin D deficiency in childhood can result in symptomatic hypocalcaemia and rickets. Despite the suggestion from some studies of a secular increase in the incidence of rickets, this observation may be driven more by changes in population demographics than a true alteration to age, sex and ethnicity-specific incidence rates; indeed, rickets remains uncommon overall and is rarely seen in fair-skinned children. Additionally, the impact of less severe vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency has received much interest in recent years, and in this review, we consider the evidence relating vitamin D status to fracture risk and bone mineral density (BMD) in childhood and adolescence. We conclude that there is insufficient evidence to support the suggestion that low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] increases childhood fracture risk. Overall, the relationship between 25(OH)D and BMD is inconsistent across studies and across skeletal sites within the same study; however, there is evidence to suggest that vitamin D supplementation in children with the lowest levels of 25(OH)D might improve BMD. High-quality randomised trials are now required to confirm this benefit.
    Osteoporosis International 08/2014; 25(12). DOI:10.1007/s00198-014-2783-5 · 4.17 Impact Factor