The Prenatal Origins of Lung Cancer. II. The Placenta
ABSTRACT We have shown that people who were short at birth in relation to their weight are at increased risk of lung cancer. We suggested that this reflected low amino acid-high glucose delivery to the fetus and that this impaired the development of its antioxidant systems and made it vulnerable to tobacco smoke and other carcinogens in later life. Transfer of amino acids and glucose from mother to fetus depends on the placenta. We here examine how maternal and placental size are related to lung cancer. We studied two cohorts, totaling 20,431 people, born in Helsinki during 1924-1944. Their body size at birth and maternal body size had been recorded together with the weight of the placenta and two diameters of its surface. Of them, 385 had developed lung cancer. Three different maternal-placental-fetal phenotypes were associated with lung cancer. Common to each was a short mother and a newborn baby that was short in relation to its weight. Lung cancer was associated with either a small or a large placental surface area. In the three phenotypes, the hazard ratios associated with a 100 cm(2) increase in placental surface were 0.36 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.87, P = 0.02), 2.31 (1.45 to 3.69, P < 0.001) and 2.04 (1.08 to 3.86, P = 0.03). We conclude that three different maternal-placental phenotypes were associated with later lung cancer. We suggest that each led to low amino acid-normal glucose transfer to the fetus, reflected in a newborn baby that was short in relation to its weight.
- OCEANS '88. 'A Partnership of Marine Interests'. Proceedings; 01/1988
Article: Vanadium-modified MCM-22 zeolite[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The synthesis and the characterization of a novel vanadoaluminosilicate V-MCM-22, with MWW structure, and of vanadyl-exchanged MCM-22 zeolite, [VO]-MCM-22, have been performed. V-MCM-22 was prepared using VOSO4 in the synthesis gel (H+ or Na+-exchanged samples were also prepared), while [VO]-MCM-22 was prepared by ion-exchange of MCM-22 with VO2+ ions. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TGA). The presence of redox sites (V4+/V5+ couples) was monitored by diffuse reflectance (DR) UV-Vis spectroscopy of oxidized (in O2 at 580°C) and reduced (in H2 at 500°C) samples.Studies in surface science and catalysis 01/2005; 158:901-908. DOI:10.1016/S0167-2991(05)80428-8
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetics research is one of the emerging research fields in biomedical research. During the last few decades, a collection of useful tools (both to design the experiments and to analyze the results) and databases are developed. This review chapter discusses basic tools which are used to detect CpG islands and the Transcription Start Site (TSS) and discusses experimental design and analysis, mainly of DNA-methylation experiments. During the last years, an enormous amount of experimental data had been generated and published. Therefore, we describe some epigenetic databases, with a special focus on DNA methylation and cancer. Some general cancer databases are discussed as well, as they might reveal the link between the results from epigenetic experiments and their biological influence on the development or progression of cancer. Next, some novel computational approaches in epigenetics are discussed, for instance used to predict the methylation state of a promoter in certain circumstances. To show a possible data analysis strategy of an epigenetic dataset in cancer research, there is a showcase where a DNA-methylation dataset, generated on colorectal cancer samples, is analyzed. This demonstrates how a DNA-methylation dataset might look like and the different steps in a possible analysis strategy and how to interpret the results.Advances in genetics 01/2010; 71:259-95. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-380864-6.00009-2 · 6.76 Impact Factor