Differential characteristics of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia according to patterns of familial aggregation
ABSTRACT Familial aggregation of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and related B-cell disorders (BCDs) suggests a role for genetic factors, but few data address environmental influences. We designed a questionnaire-based study to examine clinical and environmental factors in a cohort of WM families with various patterns of case aggregation. We analyzed data on 103 WM patients and 272 unaffected relatives from 35 multiple-case WM and 46 mixed WM/BCD kindred and 28 nonfamilial (sporadic) WM patients, using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for association. In this study population, the WM disease process appeared similar among patients regardless of family history. Familial WM patients were more likely than unaffected relatives to report a history of autoimmune disease (OR, 2.27; 95% CI = 1.21-4.28) and infections (OR, 2.13; 95% CI = 1.25-3.64). Familial WM patients were also more likely to report exposure to farming (OR, 2.70; 95% CI = 1.34-5.42), pesticides (OR, 2.83; 95% CI = 1.56-5.11), wood dust (OR, 2.86; 95% CI = 1.54-5.33), and organic solvents (multiple-case WM OR, 4.21; 95% CI = 1.69-10.51) compared with unaffected family members. These data provide clues to both genetic and environmental factors that may influence development of WM. Well-designed case-control studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jill Koshiol, Sep 01, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Vilhelmína Haraldsdóttir
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- "Family members of patients with MGUS or MM have a two-three-fold higher risk of developing MGUS and multiple myeloma –. CLL and WM include both sporadic and familial forms of the disease –. Inherited polymorphisms are associated with both CLL and WM ; ; –, and a strongly recurrent somatic mutation with WM . The odds ratios found here for CLL and WM were considerably more pronounced than those found for MM which appears to have less familial influence. "
ABSTRACT: Genetic variations in the hyaluronan synthase 1 gene (HAS1) influence HAS1 aberrant splicing. HAS1 is aberrantly spliced in malignant cells from multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM), but not in their counterparts from healthy donors. The presence of aberrant HAS1 splice variants predicts for poor survival in multiple myeloma (MM). We evaluated the influence of inherited HAS1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on the risk of having a systemic B cell malignancy in 1414 individuals compromising 832 patients and 582 healthy controls, including familial analysis of an Icelandic kindred. We sequenced HAS1 gene segments from 181 patients with MM, 98 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 72 with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM), 169 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), as well as 34 members of a monoclonal gammopathy-prone Icelandic family, 212 age-matched healthy donors and a case-control cohort of 295 breast cancer patients with 353 healthy controls. Three linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in HAS1 intron3 are significantly associated with B-cell malignancies (range p = 0.007 to p = 10-5), but not MGUS or breast cancer, and predict risk in a 34 member Icelandic family (p = 0.005, Odds Ratio = 5.8 (OR)), a relatively homogeneous cohort. In contrast, exon3 SNPs were not significantly different among the study groups. Pooled analyses showed a strong association between the linked HAS1 intron3 SNPs and B-cell malignancies (OR = 1.78), but not for sporadic MGUS or for breast cancer (OR<1.0). The minor allele genotypes of HAS1 SNPs are significantly more frequent in MM, WM, CLL and in affected members of a monoclonal gammopathy-prone family than they are in breast cancer, sporadic MGUS or healthy donors. These inherited changes may increase the risk for systemic B-cell malignancies but not for solid tumors.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100691. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100691 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "Studies of familial aggregation have long been used for generating hypotheses regarding shared genetic and environmental factors  . Previous studies suggest that genetic and environmental risk factors for B-cell disorders may also be risk factors for WM   , but additional hypothesis sources are needed. We thus examined potential associations of WM with "
ABSTRACT: Little is known about the epidemiology and etiology of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM). Despite several studies of the relation between family history and B-cell disorders and WM, family history of non-hematologic cancers has not been systematically investigated. We thus examined associations of family history of breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, and prostate cancers with WM. All probands aged 20-79 years with bone marrow biopsy-confirmed diagnosis of WM between May 1, 1999 and January 1, 2010 at the Bing Center for Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia were eligible for inclusion in our analysis. We reviewed medical records for eligible probands to determine family history of cancer (defined as a cancer diagnosis for ≥1 first-degree relative(s) of the proband). Using expected values constructed from the United States National Health Interview Survey, we estimated age- and race-standardized rate ratios (RRs) for family history of breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, and prostate cancers by WM subtype. Family history of prostate cancer had the largest overall rate ratio (RR=1.4, 95% confidence limits [CL]: 1.1, 1.7), and among sporadic cases, family history of prostate and breast cancer had the largest rate ratios (prostate: RR=1.3, 95% CL: 1.1, 1.7; breast: RR=1.3, 95% CL: 1.2, 1.6). Our study suggests that it may be worthwhile to pursue these associations in a case-control study with uniform selection and data collection for cases and controls, and at least some record-based information on family history.11/2011; 36(3):294-7. DOI:10.1016/j.canep.2011.10.010
Conference Paper: A novel theory of SAR image restoration and enhancement with ICA[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Active radar sensing is an important method of obtaining inventory information about remote and cloud-covered areas of the world. However, automatic interpretation of SAR images is often difficult due to speckle noise. Appearing as a random granular pattern, speckles seriously degrade the image quality and affect the task of human interpretation and scene analysis. For this kind of speckle removal problem, one of the difficulties is to overcome the tradeoff between noise reduction and preserving significant image details. In this paper, a novel theory of SAR image restoration and enhancement with independent component analysis (ICA) is proposed. We assume that the speckle noise in SAR images comes from a different signal source, which accompanies but is independent (their statistical characteristics are not same.) of the "true signal source" (image details). Thus the speckle removal problem can also he described as "signal source separation" problem. Then in order to enhance the "true signal source", we classify the basis images and span them into two different signal subspaces, namely "true signal subspace" and "speckle subspace". Finally we build different nonlinear estimators in each signal subspace to recover the original image. In our experiments, the SAR images consist of nine channels of images. We compare our method with two other well known speckle reduction approaches (Kuan filter and Lee filter). The results show that with our method the speckle noise is efficiently removed while at the same time important details (edges in particular) are retained without introducing artificial structures. We further calculate the ratio of standard deviation to mean (SD/Mean) for each image and use it as a criterion for image quality and find that the improvement with our method is more evident for images with ''high level speckle noise"Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS '04. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International; 10/2004