Article

Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

Institute for Therapy and Health Research, Kiel, Germany.
American journal of preventive medicine (Impact Factor: 4.24). 04/2010; 38(4):359-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2009.12.036
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association.
This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking.
A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers.
The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models.
This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
186 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective We assess exposure to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing and its association with ever having tried smoking, smoking within past 30 days (current), and smoking ≥100 cigarettes in lifetime (established) among adolescents and young adults. Methods We surveyed a U.S. telephone sample of 3,342 15- to 23-year-olds and 2,541 respondents subsequently completed a web-based survey. Among respondents completing both the telephone and web-based surveys (N = 2,541 [75%]), we assessed their exposure to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing (receiving direct mail from tobacco companies and seeing tobacco company websites) and their associations with ever having tried smoking, current smoking, and established smoking. Results Overall, 12% of 15- to 17-year-olds and 26% of 18- to 23-year-olds were exposed to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing. Racial/ethnic minority nonsmoking respondents were more likely to see tobacco websites than nonsmoking whites. Respondents exposed to either form of direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing were more likely to currently smoke (adjusted odds ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.3–3.8), while those exposed to both forms of marketing experienced even higher odds of currently smoking (adjusted odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.1–6.6). We observed similar relationships for ever having tried smoking and established smoking. Conclusions Direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing reaches adolescent and young adult nonsmokers and is associated with smoking behavior.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 01/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With declining cigarette sales, increasing restrictions, and recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of cigarettes, there has been a dramatic rise in the marketing of noncombustible tobacco products (NCPs). However, little is known about how NCPs are advertised and to whom. Two full-service advertising firms were used to systematically collect all U.S. advertisements for NCPs (e-cigarettes, snus, dissolvables, and chew/dip/snuff,) running between June 1 and September 1, 2012. The advertisement and associated metadata (brand, media channel, observations, spend, and estimated reach) were examined. Attributes of print advertisements were examined relative to target demographics of the publications in which they ran. Over 3 months, almost $20 million was spent advertising NCPs. Although the greatest spend was on the promotion of smokeless (~$8 million) and snus (~$10 million), e-cigarette advertisements were the most widely circulated. Print advertisements, the majority of which were e-cigarettes and chew/dip/snuff, were heavily tailored to middle-aged White males. Many e-cigarette print ads suggested harm reduction and use when one cannot smoke (poly-use) while chew/dip/snuff focused on masculinity. Robust ongoing surveillance of NCP advertising is critical to inform the FDA and protect public health. Both commercial advertising and public health media campaigns must ensure that content is not misleading and educates consumers about harm based on the available science. The way messages are framed have the potential to decrease tobacco use by promoting rather than undermining cessation of combusted products and/or encouraging exclusive use of less harmful NCPs rather than poly-use of combusted and NCPs.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 12/2013; · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Anti-tobacco television advertisement campaigns may convey messages on smoking-related health consequences and create norms against giving cigarettes.Methods: Altogether, 156 and 112 slots of a television advertisement "Giving cigarettes is giving harm" were aired on Suzhou and Yizheng, respectively, over one month in 2010. Participants were recruited from 15 locations in Suzhou and 8 locations in Yizheng using a street intercept method. Overall 2306 residents aged 18-45 years completed questionnaires, including 1142 before the campaign and 1164 after, with respective response rates of 79.1% and 79.7%. Chi square tests were used to compare the difference between categorical variables.Results: After the campaign, 36.0% of subjects recalled that they had seen the advertisement. Residents of Suzhou had a higher recall rate than those of Yizheng (47.6% vs. 20.6%, P < 0.001). The rate of not giving cigarettes dropped from 32.1% before the campaign to 28.5% after (P = 0.05). In the post-campaign evaluation, participants who reported seeing the advertisement were more likely not to give cigarettes in the future than those who reported not seeing the advertisement (38.7% vs. 27.5%, P < 0.001).Conclusions: Our study showed that an anti-tobacco television advertisements helped change societal norms and improve health behavior. Continuous and adequate funding of anti-tobacco media campaigns targeted at different levels of the general population is needed, in conjunction with a comprehensive tobacco control effort.
    Journal of Epidemiology 09/2014; · 2.11 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
1 Download