Cigarette Advertising and Adolescent Smoking
ABSTRACT Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association.
This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking.
A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers.
The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models.
This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: James D Sargent, Jan 22, 2015
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- "The impact of commercial advertising on the abuse of tobacco (Rigotti et al., 2005; Hanewinkel et al., 2010, 2011; Lovato et al., 2011), alcohol (Henriksen et al., 2008; Faria et al., 2011; Gordon et al., 2011; Morgenstern et al., 2011; Koordeman et al., 2012) and unhealthy foods (Boyland et al., 2011; Ferguson et al., 2012; Keller et al., 2012; Mekhmoukh et al., 2012; Scully et al., 2012) has been widely demonstrated in the literature. Moreover, in recent years, a number of studies have dealt with the formulation and effectiveness of public policies that attempt to regulate or even ban the advertising of these products (Anderson et al., 2009; Casswell, 2012; Paek and Hove, 2012). "
ABSTRACT: The tactical use of visuoperceptual content in marketing may encourage impulsive consumption of unhealthy products. In this study, the application of visuoperceptual content was compared in advertisements used by industries of tobacco, alcohol and food. The aim was to ascertain whether similarities exist in the strategies used as variables for the selection of commercial stimuli, such as color, position and size. Scion Image and Corel Draw Graphics Suite software were used to analyze the content of a non-probabilistic sample of advertising images (N = 150). Differences were identified in the use of the colors green (p = 0.04) and red (p = 0.01), but not in the use of the color blue (p = 0.64), suggesting that induction of feelings of pleasantness resulting from the use of the color blue may be associated with the advertising in the alcohol and tobacco industries. Regarding the position of the commercial stimuli, a predominance of the use of quadrants 'C' (p = 0.00) and 'D' (p = 0.01) was found in all three industries, indicating a similar use of areas perceived as being 'heavier'. As to the size, 78% of advertisements placed the commercial stimuli within a range of 0-25% of the total image. The results showed some similarities in the use of visuoperceptual content in advertisements for tobacco, alcohol and food, especially between tobacco and alcohol. The article offers a convergence analysis of these three industries altogether, providing additional subsidies for the formulation of protection policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.Health Promotion International 06/2015; 30. DOI:10.1093/heapro/dav057 · 1.94 Impact Factor
Article: Adolescents, Drugs, and the Media.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although tobacco and alcohol involve a high rate of morbidity and mortality, both remain widely advertised in the media. After a review of research into the influence of television and advertisements and an overview of the policies of the tobacco and alcohol industries, the author proposes ten specific steps to minimize detrimental effects on adolescents, including a total ban on tobacco advertising in all media and on beer and wine advertising in the broadcast media.Adolescent medicine (Philadelphia, Pa.) 07/1993; 4(2):391-416.
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ABSTRACT: The tobacco industry denies that their marketing is targeted at young nonsmokers, but it seems more probable that tobacco advertising and promotion influences the attitudes of nonsmoking adolescents, and makes them more likely to try smoking. To assess the effects of tobacco advertising and promotion on nonsmoking adolescents' future smoking behaviour. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Group specialized register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Sociological Abstracts, PsycLIT, ERIC, WorldCat, Dissertation Abstracts, ABI Inform and Current Contents to August 2011. We selected longitudinal studies that assessed individuals' smoking behaviour and exposure to advertising, receptivity or attitudes to tobacco advertising, or brand awareness at baseline, and assessed smoking behaviour at follow ups. Participants were adolescents aged 18 or younger who were not regular smokers at baseline. Studies were prescreened for relevance by one reviewer. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies for inclusion. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Nineteen longitudinal studies that followed up a total of over 29,000 baseline nonsmokers met inclusion criteria. The studies measured exposure or receptivity to advertising and promotion in a variety of ways, including having a favourite advertisement or an index of receptivity based on awareness of advertising and ownership of a promotional item. One study measured the number of tobacco advertisements in magazines read by participants. All studies assessed smoking behaviour change in participants who reported not smoking at baseline. In 18 of the 19 studies the nonsmoking adolescents who were more aware of tobacco advertising or receptive to it, were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes or become smokers at follow up. There was variation in the strength of association, and the degree to which potential confounders were controlled for. Longitudinal studies consistently suggest that exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion is associated with the likelihood that adolescents will start to smoke. Based on the strength and specificity of this association, evidence of a dose-response relationship, the consistency of findings across numerous observational studies, temporality of exposure and smoking behaviours observed, as well as the theoretical plausibility regarding the impact of advertising, we conclude that tobacco advertising and promotion increases the likelihood that adolescents will start to smoke.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2011; 10(10):CD003439. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD003439.pub2 · 5.94 Impact Factor