Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Gambling Behavior

Division on Addictions, Cambridge Health Alliance, 101 Station Landing, 2nd Floor, Medford, MA 02155, USA.
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.09). 03/2010; 24(1):89-97. DOI: 10.1037/a0018452
Source: PubMed


Gambling is an important public health concern. To better understand gambling behavior, we conducted a classroom-based survey that assessed the role of the theory of planned behavior (TPB; i.e., intentions, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and attitudes) in past-year gambling and gambling frequency among college students. Results from this research support the utility of the TPB to explain gambling behavior in this population. Specifically, in TPB models to predict gambling behavior, friend and family subjective norms and perceived behavioral control predicted past-year gambling, and friend and family subjective norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control predicted gambling frequency. Intention to gamble mediated these relationships. These findings suggest that college-based responsible gambling efforts should consider targeting misperceptions of approval regarding gambling behavior (i.e., subjective norms), personal approval of gambling behavior (i.e., attitudes), and perceived behavioral control to better manage gambling behavior in various situations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

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    • "To understand gambling-related influences on a student requires several dimensions of a student's life to be examined, including the individual (Barnes, Welte, Hoffmann, & Tidwell, 2010; Ellenbogen, Jacobs, Derevensky, Gupta, & Paskus, 2008; Huang, Jacobs, & Derevensky 2010, 2011; King, Abrams, & Wilkinson, 2010; Martens et al., 2009; Seifert & Wulfert, 2011), the interpersonal (King et al., 2010) and the student's community and society as a whole (Foster, Neighbors, Rodriguez, Lazorwitz, & Gonzalez, 2014; Lee, 2013; Moore et al., 2013). A largest number of these studies have concentrated on student gamblers' motivations and psychiatric profiles (Atkinson, Sharp, Schmitz, & Yaroslavsky, 2012; Cummins, Nadorff, & Kelly, 2009; Ginley, Whelan, Meyers, Relyea, & Pearlson, 2014a; Ginley, Whelan, Relyea, Meyers, & Pearlson, 2014b; Ginley et al., 2015; Lee, 2013; Martin et al., 2010; Quinlan, Goldstein, & Stewart, 2014; Seifert & Wulfert, 2011; Thrasher, Andrew, & Mahony, 2011; Wu & Tang, 2012). For example, Quinlan et al. (2014) found that coping gambling motivations positively predicted if an individual would gamble alone, while social gambling motivations negatively predicted gambling alone and positively predicted gambling with friends. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Research has yet to disentangle and estimate the relative contributions of both contextual and individual characteristics to explain time and money expenditures on gambling. Methods: Data are drawn from the University Student Gambling Habit Survey (ENHJEU), a campus-stratified survey targeting full-time undergraduates enrolled at three universities in Montreal, Canada (N = 2139). Up to three gambling occasions were investigated per respondent, resulting in 1757 gambling occasions distributed among 916 students. Multilevel analyses were performed to estimate the variances in time and money expenditures that are derived at the individual level (level 2) and at the contextual level (level 1). Results: Regarding time expenditures, the intraclass correlation revealed that 58% of the estimated variance is between students, whereas 42% is between occasions. All contextual variables including alcohol use, days of the week, social context, group size and experience of play were significantly related to students' time spent gambling, with the exception of drug use. With respect to money expenditures, 56% of the estimated variance is between individuals, whereas 44% is explained by the gambling occasions. Money expenditures per occasion vary based on whether students were gambling on a weekday or during the weekend, how many people they were gambling with, and the general experience of play. Conclusions: Prevention strategies should focus on educational messages that provide tips and tricks for balancing leisure gambling time and daily responsibilities (e.g. studies). It is also important to deploy effective prevention tools to break isolation and loss of control in concentrated settings.
    Addiction Research and Theory 06/2015; 23(6). DOI:10.3109/16066359.2015.1059826 · 1.03 Impact Factor
    • "). As for perceived behavioural control, it corresponds to a person's perception of his/her personal resources (abilities, knowledge, etc.) and the factors that make it easier or more difficult to perform a particular behaviour (Ajzen, 2012; Ajzen & Madden, 1986; Martin et al., 2010 "
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    International Gambling Studies 01/2015; 15(1):1-16. DOI:10.1080/14459795.2014.985693 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    • "When the reference group was close others, the positive relationship between perceptions of family and friends' gambling frequency and the respondent's own gambling was stronger for individuals who believed that their friends and family members highly approved of gambling. As previous research has found (Larimer & Neighbors, 2003; Martin et al., 2010 "
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    ABSTRACT: Social norms have a fundamental impact on behavior, yet little research has examined social norms regarding gambling and no research has examined possible interaction effects. The current study examined the interaction between perceived approval of gambling by others (i.e., injunctive norms) and perceived prevalence of gambling by others (i.e., descriptive norms) on the respondent's gambling frequency and problems, in a sample of relatively frequent gamblers. The current study examined 2 distinct reference groups: 1 close in proximity (i.e., family and friends) and 1 distally located (i.e., other students). The sample consisted of 252 undergraduates who gambled at least twice a month. Two interactions were observed on gambling frequency based on the proximity of the reference groups; however, only descriptive norms significantly predicted gambling problems. When the reference group was closer in proximity, the positive relationship between perceptions of family and friends' gambling frequency and the individual's own gambling was stronger for individuals who believed that their friends and family members highly approved of gambling. When the reference group was distally located, differences in respondents' gambling frequency emerged only in contexts in which they perceived other students to gamble infrequently. Specifically, when respondents perceived that other students gambled infrequently and disapproved of gambling, respondents gambled the most frequently. The results suggest that individuals are influenced by their perceptions of others' attitudes and behaviors, regardless of proximity, and that these perceptions of others' behavior are strongly associated with gambling problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 06/2014; 28(2):592-598. DOI:10.1037/a0036444 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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