Shape-controlled synthesis of single-crystalline palladium nanocrystals.
ABSTRACT A versatile method for selectively synthesizing single-crystalline rhombic dodecahedral, cubic, and octahedral palladium nanocrystals, as well as their derivatives with varying degrees of edge- and corner-truncation, was reported for the first time. This is also the first report regarding the synthesis of rhombic dodecahedral palladium nanocrystals. All the nanocrystals were readily synthesized by a seed-mediated method with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactant, KI as additive, and ascorbic acid as reductant. At the same ascorbic acid concentration, a series of palladium nanocrystals with varying shapes were obtained through manipulation of the concentration of KI and the reaction temperature. The formation of different palladium facets were correlated with their growth conditions. In the absence of KI, the 100 palladium facets are favored. In the presence of KI, the concentration of KI and the reaction temperature play an important role on the formation of different palladium facets. The 110 palladium facets are favored at relatively high temperatures and medium KI concentrations. The 111 palladium facets are favored at relatively low temperatures and medium KI concentrations. The 100 palladium facets are favored at either very low or relatively high KI concentrations. These correlations were explained in terms of surface-energy and growth kinetics. These results provide a basis for gaining mechanistic insights into the growth of well-faceted metal nanostructures.