Epitheliosis, infiltrating epitheliosis, and radial scar.
ABSTRACT The lesion termed "infiltrating epitheliosis" (IE) by Azzopardi is described using his original criteria. The differential diagnosis from radial scar (RS) is discussed. It appears that IE and RS are histologically and histogenetically different and are also associated with a different risk of carcinoma. IE can be associated with either in situ or invasive carcinoma, whereas RS being more like a process of involution is very seldom involved by a carcinoma. Therefore, whatever name is used among the several found in the literature, it should be made clear they are not interchangeable when reporting on lesions like IE and RS.
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ABSTRACT: Radial scars (RSs) or complex sclerosing lesions (CSLs) of the breast are benign radiologic and histologic entities. With the introduction of population-based screening programs, their incidence has increased to 0.03% to 0.09% of all core needle biopsies (CNBs). They can pose diagnostic difficulty because their radiologic and histologic appearances mimic carcinoma. We retrospectively searched for and reviewed all cases of RS/CSL diagnosed on image-guided CNB from January 1, 1994, to August 31, 2013, at a single institution. We also assessed the pathologic reports from excisional biopsies to identify cases upstaged to atypia or neoplasm. After exclusions, 100 CNBs were identified from 97 women, which showed RS/CSL without concomitant atypia. Mean age of the women was 52.9 years. Thirty-five women (38/100 CNBs, 38%) had follow-up excision. The median size of the excised RS/CSLs was 1.2 cm; 69% were larger than 1.0 cm. Almost all excised cases (92%) showed radiologic and pathologic concordance, and 79% were designated as suspicious for malignancy (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System level 4). The most common findings of 38 follow-up excisional biopsies were residual RS (22 [58%]), atypical lobular hyperplasia (5 [13%]), and no residual lesion (5 [13%]). Eleven excisional biopsies (29%) were upstaged to invasive or in situ carcinoma or to atypical hyperplasia. Follow-up excisional biopsy is warranted for RS/CSLs, specifically those larger than 1.0 cm with worrisome radiographic findings or with radiologic and pathologic discordance. Approximately 29% of cases were upstaged to in situ or invasive carcinomas or other high-risk lesions in our study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Annals of Diagnostic Pathology 12/2014; 19(1). DOI:10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2014.12.003 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Low grade adenosquamous carcinoma (LGASC) is rare but commonly reported to arise in association with benign proliferative and sclerosing breast lesions which themselves may show associated sclerosing or 'adenosquamous proliferation' (ASP) resembling LGASC, but are often derided as reactive mimics or attributed to earlier biopsy. Among other benign lesions, radial sclerosing lesion (RSL) may be associated with LGASC, yet attention is typically focused on its relationship to more common forms of mammary carcinoma. This study aimed to assess the presence and extent of ASP in the context of RSL in a small cohort of 20 cases and its similarity to LGASC.Twenty consecutive breast excisions that had a principal or incidental diagnosis of RSL were reviewed. RSLs that displayed foci of ASP were further examined with immunohistochemical markers for p63, calponin, cytokeratin 5/6, oestrogen and progesterone receptors.Sixty percent of excisions contained ASP either associated with a RSL or a concurrent papilloma, which morphologically and immunohistochemically were indistinguishable from the neoplastic ducts of LGASC. RSL with and without ASP broadly corresponded to accepted definitions for 'early' and 'late' lesions, respectively. ASP corresponded to the characteristic compact branching ducts of the core or nidus of a RSL.The morphological and immunophenotypic similarity of the ASP found in RSL and papillomata to LGASC warrants serious consideration that they are a potential precursor to LGASC, which may most commonly involute given the rarity of clinically apparent LGASC. Further study including micro-dissection of foci of ASP to compare its molecular genetic profile to that of LGASC is required.Pathology 05/2014; 46(5). DOI:10.1097/PAT.0000000000000115 · 2.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Morphological criteria for the diagnosis of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast have been an object of research and much controversy, and its terminology is rather confusing. Knowledge of the molecular aspects of this disease probably necessitates further research to clarify if these entities can be identified as breast cancer precursors or as a malignant preinvasive disease. These issues are of great interest not only for their biological implications, but also to the clinician who must understand the disease and direct therapies. Molecular studies have shown that epitheliosis (usual ductal hyperplasia) is not monoclonal, while malignant lesions (atypical ductal hyperplasia, flat epithelial atypia, low-grade and high-grade intraductal carcinoma) constantly show these characteristics. These malignant lesions, classified with a DIN grading system (ductal intraepithelial neoplasia), are not obligate precursors of invasive ductal carcinoma and do not represent different evolving grades in a linear model of cancerogenesis. Breast cancerogenesis probably has different pathways with different morphologic precursors.01/2012; 2012:501904. DOI:10.1155/2012/501904