A Review of Marketing Mix: 4Ps or More?

International Journal of Marketing Studies 04/2009; 1(1). DOI: 10.5539/ijms.v1n1p2
Source: DOAJ


The main objective of this study is to review the present marketing mix applies particularly to the marketing. Borden (1965) claims to be the first to have used the term marketing mix and that it was suggested to him by Culliton’s (1948). McCarthy (1964) offered marketing mix, often referred to as the 4Ps, as a means of translating marketing planning into practice (Bennett, 1997). Marketing mix is originating from the single P (price) of microeconomic theory (Chong, 2003). Number of researchers (eg. Grönroos, 1994; Constantinides, 2002; Goi, 2005; Möller, 2006) explores more Ps instead of traditional 4Ps only currently applied in the market. However, the creation of new P seem like unstop. New Ps were introduced into the marketing scene in order to face up into a highly competitively charged environment (Low and Tan, 1995). Even, Möller (2006) presents an up-to-date picture of the current standing in the debate around the Mix as marketing paradigm and predominant marketing management tool by reviewing academic views from five marketing management sub-disciplines (consumer marketing, relationship marketing, services marketing, retail marketing and industrial marketing) and an emerging marketing (E-Commerce). The concept of 4Ps has been criticised by number of studies. Popovic (2006) criticised 4Ps as being a production-oriented definition of marketing, and not a customer-oriented. However, in spite of its deficiencies, the 4Ps remain a staple of the marketing mix. The subsequent Ps have yet to overcome a consensus about eligibility and agreement over the practical application (Kent and Brown, 2006).

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    • "4Ps of the marketing mix, described as " the holy quadruple of the marketing faith written in tablets of stone " by Kent (1986), is a conceptual framework that identifies the decisions made by managers in configuring companies' offerings to meet consumers' needs (Goi, 2009). Positioning decisions and usage of marketing mix tools constitute a byzantine. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is identifying the services marketing mix (7Ps- product/service, place, promotion, price, people, processes and physical evidence) decisions of a logistics company. The significance of services marketing mix on creating a logistics services brand has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, the case of a global brand, DHL Logistics is presented. Case study was conducted by using secondary data obtained from DHL Logistics’ reports and by conducting semi-constructed interviews with DHL Logistics’ executives and employees. Due to the reputation and operations of the company, this framework will act as a guideline for the other alike companies. The marketing mix decisions made by DHL Logistics affect both B2B and B2C customers’ brand perceptions and enhance the brand equity of DHL Logistics.
    Procedia Economics and Finance 12/2015; 23:1079-1083. DOI:10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00457-8
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    • "Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 7; 2015 61 industries or companies might expand the marketing 4Ps to a mix of more elements to meet the needs of a particular environment (Zineldin & Philipson, 2007; Goi, 2009). Previous marketing management studies have tended to focus more on the product and promotion strategies, while ignoring the importance of price and place strategies (Aulakh & Kotabe, 1992; Chung, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Elementary schools in Taiwan are facing tremendous competition in the market place due to the dramatic decrease of the country’s birth rate. As a result, schools are forced to adopt many strategies to survive the competitive market. Place strategy is one of the most important parts of marketing 4Ps, and this research is endeavored to explore what elements of place strategy are most effective in school marketing perceived by parents. Analytic Hierarchy Process was adopted as the major research calculation method, and a self-developed questionnaire was administered to 300 parents in 6 elementary schools. The results indicated that parents mostly considered safe and pleasant neighborhood, followed by well-designed and maintained school construction, up-to-date and decent learning facilities, and quality aesthetic and health facilities. As a result, schools should further stress these elements when promoting their schools. © 2015, Canadian Center of Science and Education. All rights reserved.
    Review of European Studies 05/2015; 7(7). DOI:10.5539/res.v7n7p60
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    • "The marketing mix, developed by Borden in 1965 and described by the "four Ps" by McCarthy (1964), summarizes the actions and practices related to product management (Bennett, 1997). The proposed consumer offer is a combination of a multitude of components: product development, pricing, promotion and distribution (Goi, 2009). At this stage marketing is only tactical (Vandercammen, 2012). "

    04/2014; 2(2):137. DOI:10.17722/jorm.v2i2.46
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