Immunohistochemistry for SDHB divides gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) into 2 distinct types.
ABSTRACT The Carney triad (CT) is gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), paraganglioma, and pulmonary chondroma. The GISTs of CT show different clinical, molecular, and morphologic features to usual adult GISTs but are similar to the majority of pediatric GISTs. We postulated that these GISTs would show negative staining for succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB). We performed SDHB immunohistochemistry on GISTs arising in 5 individuals with CT, 1 child, 7 individuals with GIST in young adulthood including 2 with germline KIT mutations, 3 individuals with neurofibromatosis 1, one 63-year-old female with multifocal gastric epithelioid GIST with lymph node metastases, and 104 consecutive unselected individuals with apparently sporadic GIST. The GISTs and paragangliomas arising in CT, the pediatric GIST, and the multifocal gastric GIST from the 63-year-old showed negative SDHB staining. GISTs from the 7 young adults and 3 with neurofibromatosis were SDHB positive. Of the unselected GISTs, 101 (97%) were positive. One of the negative GISTs arose in a 48-year-old female with previous recurrent multifocal gastric GISTs and the other 2 arose in females also in their 40s with gastric GISTs with epithelioid morphology. We conclude that negative staining for SDHB is characteristic of the GISTs of CT and the subgroup of pediatric GISTs which it resembles. Furthermore, when negative staining occurs in apparently sporadic GISTs in adults, the GISTs show morphologic and clinical features similar to pediatric and CT type GISTs. GISTs may therefore be divided into type 1 (SDHB positive) and type 2 (SDHB negative) subtypes.
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ABSTRACT: Carney triad (CT) describes the association of paragangliomas (PGLs) with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and pulmonary chondromas. Inactivating mutations of the mitochondrial complex II succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme subunits SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD are found in PGLs, gain-of-function mutations of c-kit (KIT), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) in GISTs. Our objective was to investigate the possibility that patients with CT and/or their tumors may harbor mutations of the SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, KIT, and PDGFRA genes and identify any other genetic alterations in CT tumors. Three males and 34 females with CT were studied retrospectively. We sequenced the stated genes and performed comparative genomic hybridization on a total of 41 tumors. No patient had coding sequence mutations of the investigated genes. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed a number of DNA copy number changes: losses dominated among benign lesions, there were an equal number of gains and losses in malignant lesions, and the average number of alterations in malignant tumors was higher compared with benign lesions. The most frequent and greatest contiguous change was 1q12-q21 deletion, a region that harbors the SDHC gene. Another frequent change was loss of 1p. Allelic losses of 1p and 1q were confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization and loss-of-heterozygosity studies. We conclude that CT is not due to SDH-inactivating or KIT- and PDGFRA-activating mutations. GISTs and PGLs in CT are associated with chromosome 1 and other changes that appear to participate in tumor progression and point to their common genetic cause.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 09/2007; 92(8):2938-43. · 6.43 Impact Factor
Article: Carney's triad paragangliomas.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 06/2001; 121(5):1011-2. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the natural history of the triad of gastric stromal sarcoma, pulmonary chondroma, and extra-adrenal paraganglioma, a rare syndrome of unknown cause primarily affecting young women. Mayo Clinic records, the world literature, and the author's files were searched for patients with all or 2 of the 3 tumors. Seventy-nine patients, 67 women and 12 men, were identified, 17 (22%) with the 3 tumors and 62 (78%) with 2 tumors. Forty-two (53%) had gastric and pulmonary tumors, the most common combination. The longest interval between detection of the first and second components was 26 years (mean, 8.4 years; median, 6 years). Follow-up ranged from 1 year to 49 years (mean, 20.6 years; median, 20 years). Sixty-four patients (81%) were alive, 19 (24%) apparently free of disease and 45 (57%) with residual or metastatic tumors. Thirty-two patients (41%) had had 1 or more local recurrences of the gastric sarcoma; the longest interval to first recurrence was 36 years. Twenty-one survivors (27%) had hepatic metastatic gastric sarcoma with follow-up of 1 year to 25 years (mean, 9.3 years; median, 7 years). Fifteen patients (19%) were dead, 10 (13%) of whom died of the disorder. Ten patients (13%) had nonfunctioning adrenocortical tumors. Two patients each had a sibling with 1 component of the triad. The triad is a chronic, persistent, and indolent disease. Benign adrenocortical tumors are a component of the condition. The disorder may be familial.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 07/1999; 74(6):543-52. · 5.79 Impact Factor