Developing Mindfulness in College Students Through Movement-Based Courses: Effects on Self-Regulatory Self-Efficacy, Mood, Stress, and Sleep Quality

Department of Human Development and Psychological Counseling, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina 28608, USA.
Journal of American College Health (Impact Factor: 1.45). 03/2010; 58(5):433-42. DOI: 10.1080/07448480903540481
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examined whether mindfulness increased through participation in movement-based courses and whether changes in self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, and perceived stress mediated the relationship between increased mindfulness and better sleep.
166 college students enrolled in the 2007-2008 academic year in 15 week classes in Pilates, Taiji quan, or GYROKINESIS.
At beginning, middle, and end of the semester, participants completed measures of mindfulness, self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, perceived stress, and sleep quality.
Total mindfulness scores and mindfulness subscales increased overall. Greater changes in mindfulness were directly related to better sleep quality at the end of the semester after adjusting for sleep disturbance at the beginning. Tiredness, Negative Arousal, Relaxation, and Perceived Stress mediated the effect of increased mindfulness on improved sleep.
Movement-based courses can increase mindfulness. Increased mindfulness accounts for changes in mood and perceived stress, which explain, in part, improved sleep quality.

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Available from: Jeffrey Greeson, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "This possibility is in line with prior research demonstrating the reciprocal associations between mood/ stress and sleep quality among adolescents (van Zundert et al. 2013) and specifically adolescents in the college context (Galambos et al. 2011). Although focusing on social connection among lonely first-year college students might be an appropriate avenue for interventions designed to improve sleep quantity, it is likely that interventions aimed at reducing stress or promoting effective coping responses (particularly among otherwise well-adjusted first-year students) would also be beneficial (e.g., Caldwell et al. 2010). Our findings present preliminary evidence that some adolescents benefit from social connection more than others with respect to sleep: those higher on loneliness after the college transition exhibited greater sleep quantity following days characterized by more social connection than usual, whereas those lower on loneliness after the transition took a longer amount of time to fall asleep following days of greater social connection. "
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    ABSTRACT: Poor sleep and alterations in the stress-sensitive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis may be mechanisms through which loneliness impacts adolescents’ well-being. Few researchers have explored whether daily variation in experiences of social connection predict day-to-day variation in sleep and HPA axis activity among adolescents navigating the college context. Using daily diary reports of social connection, objective measures of sleep (actigraphy), and naturalistic salivary assessment, the present study examined within-person associations between first-year college students’ social connection during the day and sleep that night, as well as diurnal cortisol activity the following day. The present study also explored trait-level loneliness as a moderator of these associations after adjusting for baseline loneliness assessed in high school. Seventy-one first-year college students (23 % male; M age = 18.85; 52 % non-Hispanic White) completed daily diary reports, wore a wrist-based accelerometer (actigraph watch), and provided saliva samples five times daily across three consecutive weekdays. The results from hierarchical linear models indicated that within-person increases in daily social connection were significantly associated with longer time spent in bed and more actual time asleep that night only for adolescents high on loneliness. Within-person increases in daily social connection were associated with a greater cortisol awakening response (CAR) the next day, regardless of trait loneliness. These findings illustrate that more daily social connection with others than usual may predict improved sleep quantity for lonely adolescents and a physiological index of anticipating upcoming daily demands (CAR) in general. Future intervention programs might consider including strategies focused on enhancing daily social interactions among adolescents starting college, particularly for lonely adolescents.
    Journal of Youth and Adolescence 12/2014; 44(2). DOI:10.1007/s10964-014-0244-2 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    • "Hyland (2009, p. 130) suggested that cultivating mindfulness takes care of 'the often mindless and restless striving that lies at the heart of our mental processes and habit-driven behaviour'. Mindfulness practice among undergraduate students has been shown to facilitate wellbeing (Shapiro et al., 2008), improve attention (Napoli et al., 2005), pertinent to achievement-related functioning, facilitate working memory capacity (Jha et al., 2010), improved self-regulatory capacity (Caldwell et al., 2010) and stress reduction (Astin, 1996). Mindfulness predicted grade point average for female MBA students (Shao & Skarlicki, 2009); increased perseverance in problem solving task (Evans et al., 2009) and to superior academic achievement and greater agreement between explicit and implicit values (Brown & Ryan, 2003) and achievement functioning including attention control, goal striving, and self-control (Brown et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The paper aims to observe the mindfulness state of two generations, the older generation comprising a group aged between 50 to 60 years of age, at the final stage of work life or on the verge of retirement; and the younger group aged between 20 to 30 years of age, belonging to a category that have started their career or finishing their business education. Assuming that the economic and social change can influence the state of mindfulness, the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was used to determine the difference. Factor Analyses extracted three behavioral dimensions; mechanical, distracted, and inattentive. Further Discriminant analysis grouped the factors on the same dimension of unmindfulness. The result demonstrated that the older group was found to be highly mindful and the younger group was found to be moderately unmindful. Keywords: Mindfulness, Generation X, Generation Y, Economic Factor, Social Factor Article can be accessed online at
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    • "lity , dynamic balance and , to a moderate degree , increasing muscular endurance ( Cruz - Ferreira et al . , 2011 ) . Both Pilates and Taijiquan are considered to be relaxa - tion exercises . However , a comparison between Pilates and Taijiquan exercises showed that Pilates exercises were more effective in improving sleep quality than Taijiquan ( Caldwell et al . , 2009 , 2010 ) . In a previous study , a 12 - week ( 60 min , twice per week ) Pilates exercises program signifi - cantly increased the quality of sleep in a young ( age range 18e30 years ) population ( Leopoldino et al . , 2012 ) . How - ever , to date , hardly any study has investigated the effect of Pilates exercises on sleep quality improvement "
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonged poor sleeping quality can decrease women's ability to perform their maternal and family duties after delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a Pilates training program on sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women in a randomized clinical trial. Eighty postpartum women were randomly divided into intervention and control groups (n = 40). Home-based 30-min Pilate's exercises were started 72 h after the delivery and performed five times per week for consecutive 8 weeks. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) prior to the intervention and 4th and 8th weeks afterwards. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, daytime dysfunction and global PSQI score (P < 0.001); however, there was no difference in sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency and sleep disturbance between the groups. In conclusion, Pilates exercises appeared to improve sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women.
    Journal of bodywork and movement therapies 04/2014; 18(2):190-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jbmt.2013.09.007
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