Article

Developing Mindfulness in College Students Through Movement-Based Courses: Effects on Self-Regulatory Self-Efficacy, Mood, Stress, and Sleep Quality

Department of Human Development and Psychological Counseling, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina 28608, USA.
Journal of American College Health (Impact Factor: 1.45). 03/2010; 58(5):433-42. DOI: 10.1080/07448480903540481
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examined whether mindfulness increased through participation in movement-based courses and whether changes in self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, and perceived stress mediated the relationship between increased mindfulness and better sleep.
166 college students enrolled in the 2007-2008 academic year in 15 week classes in Pilates, Taiji quan, or GYROKINESIS.
At beginning, middle, and end of the semester, participants completed measures of mindfulness, self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, perceived stress, and sleep quality.
Total mindfulness scores and mindfulness subscales increased overall. Greater changes in mindfulness were directly related to better sleep quality at the end of the semester after adjusting for sleep disturbance at the beginning. Tiredness, Negative Arousal, Relaxation, and Perceived Stress mediated the effect of increased mindfulness on improved sleep.
Movement-based courses can increase mindfulness. Increased mindfulness accounts for changes in mood and perceived stress, which explain, in part, improved sleep quality.

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    • "This possibility is in line with prior research demonstrating the reciprocal associations between mood/ stress and sleep quality among adolescents (van Zundert et al. 2013) and specifically adolescents in the college context (Galambos et al. 2011). Although focusing on social connection among lonely first-year college students might be an appropriate avenue for interventions designed to improve sleep quantity, it is likely that interventions aimed at reducing stress or promoting effective coping responses (particularly among otherwise well-adjusted first-year students) would also be beneficial (e.g., Caldwell et al. 2010). Our findings present preliminary evidence that some adolescents benefit from social connection more than others with respect to sleep: those higher on loneliness after the college transition exhibited greater sleep quantity following days characterized by more social connection than usual, whereas those lower on loneliness after the transition took a longer amount of time to fall asleep following days of greater social connection. "
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    • "lity , dynamic balance and , to a moderate degree , increasing muscular endurance ( Cruz - Ferreira et al . , 2011 ) . Both Pilates and Taijiquan are considered to be relaxa - tion exercises . However , a comparison between Pilates and Taijiquan exercises showed that Pilates exercises were more effective in improving sleep quality than Taijiquan ( Caldwell et al . , 2009 , 2010 ) . In a previous study , a 12 - week ( 60 min , twice per week ) Pilates exercises program signifi - cantly increased the quality of sleep in a young ( age range 18e30 years ) population ( Leopoldino et al . , 2012 ) . How - ever , to date , hardly any study has investigated the effect of Pilates exercises on sleep quality improvement "
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