Lipogenesis in arterial wall and vascular smooth muscle cells of Psammomys obesus: its regulation and abnormalities in diabetes.
ABSTRACT Lipogenesis is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and such in situ lipogenesis could be providing the fatty acids for triglyceride synthesis and cholesterol esterification, and contributing to lipid accumulation in the arterial wall. This study investigated both the expression and regulation of lipogenesis in VSMCs to determine if they are modified in Psammomys obesus gerbils fed a high-fat diet as a model of insulin resistance and diabetes.
Aortas were collected from diabetic and non-diabetic P. obesus for histological examination, measurement of lipogenic gene expression and VSMC culture.
The aortas of diabetic animals exhibited lipid deposits and foam cells as well as disorganization of elastic fibres. However, lipogenic gene expression was not modified. VSMCs in vitro from the aortas of diabetic animals had, compared with cells from non-diabetic animals, lower mRNA levels of SREBP-1c and ChREBP. An adipogenic medium stimulated moderate FAS and ACC1 expression in cells from both diabetic and non-diabetic animals, but glucose and insulin on their own had no such stimulatory action. Also, triiodothyronine (T3) had a clear stimulatory action, while angiotensin II had a moderate effect, in cells from non-diabetic P. obesus, but not from diabetic animals, whereas LXR agonists stimulated lipogenesis in cells from both animal groups.
Lipogenesis is expressed in the arterial walls and VSMCs of P. obesus. However, its expression was not increased in diabetes, and did not respond to either T3 or angiotensin II. Therefore, lipogenesis in situ is unlikely to contribute to the accumulation of lipids in the arterial walls of diabetic P. obesus gerbils.
Article: Pregnane X receptor regulates drug metabolism and transport in the vasculature and protects from oxidative stress.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Circulating endogenous, dietary, and foreign chemicals can contribute to vascular dysfunction. The mechanism by which the vasculature protects itself from these chemicals is unknown. This study investigates whether the pregnane X receptor (PXR), the major transcriptional regulator of hepatic drug metabolism and transport that responds to such xenobiotics, mediates vascular protection by co-ordinating a defence gene programme in the vasculature. PXR was detected in primary human and rat aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells (SMC) and blood vessels including the human and rat aorta. Metabolic PXR target genes cytochrome P450 3A, 2B, 2C, and glutathione S-transferase mRNA and activity were induced by PXR ligands in rodent and human vascular cells and absent in the aortas from PXR-null mice stimulated in vivo or in rat aortic SMC expressing dominant-negative PXR. Activation of aortic PXR by classical agonists had several protective effects: increased xenobiotic metabolism demonstrated by bioactivation of the pro-drug clopidogrel, which reduced adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation; increased expression of multidrug resistance protein 1, mediating chemical efflux from the vasculature; and protection from reactive oxygen species-mediated cell death. PXR co-ordinately up-regulates drug metabolism, transport, and antioxidant genes to protect the vasculature from endogenous and exogenous insults, thus representing a novel gatekeeper for vascular defence.Cardiovascular research 12/2011; 93(4):674-81. · 5.80 Impact Factor