CD40 is a regulator for vascular endothelial growth factor in the tumor microenvironment of glioma.
ABSTRACT CD40 is expressed in many tumor cells, however, its role in tumor biology is yet to be demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated the role of CD40 in gliomas. In vivo, we evaluated CD40 expression in 95 glioma tissues and 10 non-tumorous brain tissues and investigated the relationship between histopathological parameters, vascular density, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions. In vitro, we aimed to understand the biological relevance of CD40 and VEGF in glioma cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that CD40 expression, including membranous and cytoplasmic staining, was significantly higher in poorly differentiated and well differentiated gliomas than in the non-tumorous brain tissues (P=0.045 and P=0.043, respectively). In gliomas, the expression of CD40 was significantly correlated with tumor size, VEGF expressions and microvessel density (MVD) (P=0.022, P=0.023 and P=0.0316, respectively). In the in vitro study, stimulation of human glioma cells by CD40 ligation induced the expression and secretion of VEGF and was blocked by anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody. These observations provide evidence that CD40 ligation supports the expression and secretion of VEGF and may be involved in neovascularization of gliomas, they also suggest that CD40 and VEGF may be useful biomarkers for evaluating the risk of developing gliomas, and may also be used as a target for therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, ocular trauma, and other eye diseases can cause choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In recent years, photodynamic therapy (PDT), anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) medications, laser treatment, and other measures against CNV have been gradually applied in the clinical setting and in some cases have achieved good results. However, the pathogenesis of CNV has not been fully elucidated. The costimulatory system made up of cluster of differentiation 40 protein (CD40) and its ligand (CD40L) is an important signal transduction pathway among immune cells. The activation of CD40 can also stimulate the secretion of a variety of angiogenic growth factors (eg, VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factors that might lead to CNV. The high level expression of CD40 and CD40L has been detected in CNV diseases. Interference with the CD40 signaling pathway may become a new target for CNV treatment. We review the relationship between CD40, CD40L, and CNV.OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2014; 7:263-267. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Liposomes constitute one of the most popular nanocarriers for improving the delivery and efficacy of agents in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate immunoliposome co-delivery of bufalin and anti-CD40 to induce synergetic therapeutic efficacy while eliminating systemic side effects. Bufalin liposomes (BFL) conjugated with anti-CD40 antibody (anti-CD40-BFL) showed enhanced cytotoxicity compared with bufalin alone. In a mouse B16 melanoma model, intravenous injection of anti-CD40-BFL achieved smaller tumor volume than did treatment with BFL (average: 117 mm(3) versus 270 mm(3), respectively); the enhanced therapeutic efficacy through a caspase-dependent pathway induced apoptosis, which was confirmed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-Fluorescein nick end labeling and Western blot assay. Meanwhile, anti-CD40-BFL elicited unapparent body-weight changes and a significant reduction in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interferon-γ, and hepatic enzyme alanine transaminase, suggesting minimized systemic side effects. This may be attributed to the mechanism by which liposomes are retained within the tumor site for an extended period of time, which is supported by the following biodistribution and flow cytometric analyses. Taken together, the results demonstrated a highly promising strategy for liposomal vehicle transport of anti-CD40 plus bufalin that can be used to enhance antitumor effects via synergetic systemic immunity while blocking systemic toxicity.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9:5683-5700. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malignant gliomas are heavily infiltrated by immature myeloid cells that mediate immunosuppression. Agonistic CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been shown to activate myeloid cells and promote antitumor immunity. Our previous study has also demonstrated blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) reduces immunosuppressive myeloid cells, thereby suppressing glioma development in mice. We therefore hypothesized that a combinatory strategy to modulate myeloid cells via two distinct pathways, i.e., CD40/CD40L stimulation and COX-2 blockade, would enhance anti-glioma immunity. We used three different mouse glioma models to evaluate therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of a combination regimen with an agonist CD40 mAb and the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Treatment of glioma-bearing mice with the combination therapy significantly prolonged survival compared with either anti-CD40 mAb or celecoxib alone. The combination regimen promoted maturation of CD11b(+) cells in both spleen and brain, and enhanced Cxcl10 while suppressing Arg1 in CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells in the brain. Anti-glioma activity of the combination regimen was T-cell dependent because depletion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in vivo abrogated the anti-glioma effects. Furthermore, the combination therapy significantly increased the frequency of CD8(+) T-cells, enhanced IFN-γ-production and reduced CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells in the brain, and induced tumor-antigen-specific T-cell responses in lymph nodes. Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of anti-CD40 mAb with celecoxib enhances anti-glioma activities via promotion of type-1 immunity both in myeloid cells and T-cells.Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 05/2014; · 3.94 Impact Factor