The study intends to identify and explain factors constraining implementation of landreform regulations, law strategy, and their implications on implementing landreform in Indonesia. The Indonesian development agenda has shifted to economy growth strategy. It has implication on implementing landreform and law development strategies in Indonesia. The law tends to be directed to facilitating and engineering economy growth. These conditions have basic implication on law agrarian development. The strategy of law agrarian development finally is directed of generating economy growth. For instance, many partial agrarian law products are contrary to agrarian law policy mentioned in UUPA. equ-feb2006-6
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rolling of leukocytes on vascular endothelial cells, an early event in inflammation, can be reproduced in vitro on artificial lipid bilayers containing purified CD62, a selectin also named PADGEM and GMP-140 that is inducible on endothelial cells. Neutrophils roll on this selectin under flow conditions similar to those found in postcapillary venules. Adhesion of resting or activated neutrophils through the integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1 to ICAM-1 in a lipid bilayer does not occur at physiologic shear stresses; however, static incubation of activated neutrophils allows development of adhesion that is greater than 100-fold more shear resistant than found on CD62. Addition of a chemoattractant to activate LFA-1 and Mac-1 results in the arrest of neutrophils rolling on bilayers containing both CD62 and ICAM-1. Thus, at physiologic shear stress, rolling on a selectin is a prerequisite for activation-induced adhesion strengthening through integrins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial cell-wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main endotoxin contributing to local inflammation and systemic toxicity during Gram-negative infections and induces aortic endothelial injury with or without cell death and replication followed by increased leukocyte adhesion. Heat-shock protein (hsp) 60 is under study in our laboratory as a potential antigen inducing immunologic attack to endothelial cells in atherogenesis. To investigate the mechanism of LPS-induced endothelial injury and the phenotypes of adhering cells, Lewis rats were treated in vivo or, in aortic organ cultures, with LPS to determine the expression of intercellular-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and hsp60 on aortic endothelium and to characterize phenotypes of adhering leukocytes. Increased ICAM-1 expression by aortic endothelium was observed as early as 3 hr after LPS injection and persisted up to 72 hr, whereas elevated levels of hsp60 were found between 6 and 48 hr. In vitro application of various types of stress, such as LPS, H2O2, and high temperature, not only stimulated endothelial expression of hsp60 but, concomitantly, that of ICAM-1. The number of adhering leukocytes was significantly increased on aortic endothelium 6 hr after LPS administration, and the predominant leukocytes adhering to stressed endothelium were monocytes (80%) and T lymphocytes (8 to 20%). In organ cultures of rat aortic intimal, LPS, and H2O2 evoked increased leukocyte adhesion, which proved to be selective, because adherent leukocytes were mostly Ia+ monocytes and T cells, i.e., activated. Adhering T cells were gamma/delta antigen-receptor positive in 8 to 16% after LPS stress, whereas these cells amount to only 2 to 4% of peripheral blood T cells. Blocking of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, LFA-1 alpha, and/or LFA-1 beta reduced adhesion up to 34%. Increased coordinated LPS-dependent expression of hsp60 and ICAM-1 correlates with monocyte and T-cell adhesion to aortic endothelium. These observations may be significant for elucidating the mechanism of the initiating events in the development of atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocytes were stimulated to increase their cell surface quantity of leukocyte adhesion proteins p150,95 and Mac-1 by the chemoattractant formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, or other mediators such as platelet-derived growth factor, tumor necrosis factor, C5a, and leukotriene B4. Dose-response curves indicated variations in the sensitivity of monocytes and granulocytes to these mediators. These increases were independent of protein synthesis and half-maximal at 2 min. Human alveolar and murine peritoneal macrophages, cells that had previously diapedised, could not be induced to upregulate Mac-1 or p150,95. Detergent permeabilization studies in monocytes indicated that these proteins were stored in internal latent pools, which were reduced upon stimulation. Electron microscopy utilizing rabbit antiserum against p150,95 revealed these proteins on the plasma membrane, and in intracellular vesicles and peroxidase negative granules. Together with other functional studies, these findings suggest that the mobilization of Mac-1 and p150,95 from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane regulates the monocyte's ability to adhere and diapedese.
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