A Meta-Analysis of After-School Programs That Seek to Promote Personal and Social Skills in Children and Adolescents

Department of Psychology, Loyola University Chicago, 6525 N. Sheridan Road, Chicago, IL 60626, USA.
American Journal of Community Psychology (Impact Factor: 1.74). 03/2010; 45(3-4):294-309. DOI: 10.1007/s10464-010-9300-6
Source: PubMed


A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to enhance the personal and social skills of children and adolescents indicated that, compared to controls, participants demonstrated significant increases in their self-perceptions and bonding to school, positive social behaviors, school grades and levels of academic achievement, and significant reductions in problem behaviors. The presence of four recommended practices associated with previously effective skill training (SAFE: sequenced, active, focused, and explicit) moderated several program outcomes. One important implication of current findings is that ASPs should contain components to foster the personal and social skills of youth because youth can benefit in multiple ways if these components are offered. The second implication is that further research is warranted on identifying program characteristics that can help us understand why some programs are more successful than others.

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Available from: Joseph A Durlak, Oct 02, 2015
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    • "There is a range of evidence on the influences of demographic variables and implementation quality on program effectiveness. Therefore, standard implementation models available, such as SAFE training practices (Durlak et al., 2010), can prove useful. Ultimately, when combining the potential for adverse program effects with a wide range of possible participant and implementation influences, a rigorous and robust evaluation is critical. "
    The Elementary School Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1086/683102 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    • "Perhaps, it is not unsupervised time with peers, per se, but the lack of organized activities that is linked to substance use. Organized activities, in contrast, is an OST context that theorists [8] [9] have identified as promoting positive youth development. Critical aspects of organized activities such as sports, arts, and community service clubs are opportunities for enrichment and challenge, supportive relationships with adult leaders, positive peer networks, and a chance for choice and voice [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: High levels of adolescent substance use are linked to lower academic achievement, reduced schooling, and delinquency. We assess four types of out-of-school time (OST) contexts-unsupervised time with peers, sports, organized activities, and paid employment-in relation to tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use at the end of high school. Other research has examined these OST contexts in isolation, limiting efforts to disentangle potentially confounded relations. Longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 766) examined associations between different OST contexts during high school and substance use at the end of high school. Unsupervised time with peers increased the odds of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use, whereas sports increased the odds of alcohol use and decreased the odds of marijuana use. Paid employment increased the odds of tobacco and alcohol use. Unsupervised time with peers predicted increased amounts of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use, whereas sports predicted decreased amounts of tobacco and marijuana use and increased amounts of alcohol use at the end of high school. Although unsupervised time with peers, sports, and paid employment were differentially linked to the odds of substance use, only unsupervised time with peers and sports were significantly associated with the amounts of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use at the end of high school. These findings underscore the value of considering OST contexts in relation to strategies to promote adolescent health. Reducing unsupervised time with peers and increasing sports participation may have positive impacts on reducing substance use. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.07.003 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    • "On the other hand, high levels of peer attachment influenced the formation of positive behaviour development resulting from religiosity and religious worldview. Therefore, peer attachment might provide a certain socio-emotional competence, such as prosocial behaviour and close peer relationships have positive psychological influences as well as increasing happiness (Durlak et al., 2010; Scholte & Van Aken, 2006). "
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