Hepatitis B Prevalence Among Asian Americans in Michigan: An Assessment to Guide Future Education and Intervention Strategies
ABSTRACT Free HBV (hepatitis B virus) screening was offered at 8 health fairs to Asian Americans in Southeast and West Michigan for two and a half years as a community service to study the prevalence of hepatitis B among Asian Americans in Michigan as a first step in reducing the incidence of hepatitis B. The screening included a 4 ml blood sample and a questionnaire assessing demographics and family history of hepatitis B; tests included the HBV surface antigen and antibody. 567 people participated in the study. About 6% of the participants had chronic hepatitis B (HBV carriers), 54% had the antibody (either had the disease before or were vaccinated) and 40% had no antibody or antigen (never infected by HBV and should be vaccinated to get protection). More than 95% of the participants were immigrants. Participants indicated in the family history that 10% had relatives with hepatitis B, 5% with liver cirrhosis, and 3% with liver cancer. Results of our screening supported our hypothesis that prevalence of hepatitis B among Asian Americans in Michigan would be similar to that in Asian Americans on the East and West coasts. We need to develop a strategy in Michigan to address this disease. In conducting this study, it was noticed that there was still resistance by Asian Americans to participate in clinical studies. An education intervention that is delivered in native Asian languages and in a culturally sensitive manner is needed to effectively raise awareness of hepatitis B among Asian Americans.
- Land Use Policy 01/1989; 6(2):181-181. DOI:10.1016/0264-8377(89)90048-3
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ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis B infection (HBV) is the major cause of primary liver cancer worldwide and Asians are disproportionately affected. The prevalence of HBV among most Asian American groups has been well documented, except in Hmong immigrants in the United States. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV among Hmong immigrants in the San Joaquin Valley of California. A convenient sample of 534 Hmong age ≥18 years was recruited at various locations throughout Fresno County. Blood samples from study participants were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by enzyme-immunoassay. Two hundred and eighty-nine females and 245 males of Hmong descent (mean age, 43.93) were screened. Eighty-nine (41 males and 48 females) were positive for HBsAg, which accounts for a prevalence of 16.7% (95% C.I. 13.5-19.9). The majorities of HBsAg positive patients were ≥40 years (64.2%), married (66.7%), born in Laos (87.3%), and had lived in the United States ≥20 years (62.5%). Only 37.5% of the participants reported having a primary care physician. Our study revealed that approximately one out of every six Hmong immigrants screened was infected with HBV. Based on our findings, more than one-third of these infected patients have no primary care physician to provide further treatment, surveillance for liver cancer, or vaccination of their families. This supports the Institute of Medicine's recent recommendations to the Center for Disease Control to engage in a national Hepatitis B surveillance system.Journal of Community Health 02/2011; 36(1):42-6. DOI:10.1007/s10900-010-9283-0
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ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may result in cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma and is one of the leading causes of mortality in Asian Americans including Hmong Americans. The Central California Valley is home to a huge Hmong population. To date, the true prevalence of HBV among Hmong is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to contribute to the limited data on HBV prevalence and its trends in Hmong population in the Central California Valley. Between fiscal years 2006 and 2010, a total of 219, 450 voluntary donors were identified at Central California Blood Center in Fresno. Of these, 821 (399 males and 422 females) were Hmong donors. A cross-sectional review of the HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen) positivity among all donors was carried out. Prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Ninety-two percent of Hmong donors were between age groups 16 and 35 years, and only 8% were ≥36 years. The overall prevalence in Hmong was noted at 3.41% (95%CI 2.3-4.9) compared to 0.06% (95%CI 0.05-0.07) in donors of all ethnicities. The calculated prevalence could be an underestimate of the true HBV prevalence in Hmong as the study enrolled only healthy blood donors with predominant younger age (≤35 years) population. These results underscore the persistent burden of HBV infection and potentially increased risk of premature death even in the second generation Hmong community of the Central California Valley. This study reemphasizes the unequivocal need to develop robust preventive and treatment strategies for HBV in Hmong community.Journal of Community Health 07/2011; 37(1):181-5. DOI:10.1007/s10900-011-9434-y