The RAGE Axis A Fundamental Mechanism Signaling Danger to the Vulnerable Vasculature

Division of Surgical Science, Department of Surgery, Columbia University, 630 W 168th St, P&S 17-401, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.09). 03/2010; 106(5):842-53. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.109.212217
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The immunoglobulin superfamily molecule RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end product) transduces the effects of multiple ligands, including AGEs (advanced glycation end products), advanced oxidation protein products, S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box-1, amyloid-beta peptide, and beta-sheet fibrils. In diabetes, hyperglycemia likely stimulates the initial burst of production of ligands that interact with RAGE and activate signaling mechanisms. Consequently, increased generation of proinflammatory and prothrombotic molecules and reactive oxygen species trigger further cycles of oxidative stress via RAGE, thus setting the stage for augmented damage to diabetic tissues in the face of further insults. Many of the ligand families of RAGE have been identified in atherosclerotic plaques and in the infarcted heart. Together with increased expression of RAGE in diabetic settings, we propose that release and accumulation of RAGE ligands contribute to exaggerated cellular damage. Stopping the vicious cycle of AGE-RAGE and RAGE axis signaling in the vulnerable heart and great vessels may be essential in controlling and preventing the consequences of diabetes.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor that interacts with advanced glycation end products, but also with C3a, CpG DNA oligonucleotides, and alarmin molecules such as HMGB1 to initiate a proinflammatory reaction. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder associated with the accumulation of RAGE ligands. We generated mice invalidated for RAGE in the lupus-prone B6-MRL Fas lpr/j background to determine the role of RAGE in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. We compared the phenotype of these mice with that of their wild-type and B6-MRL Fas lpr/j littermates. Lymphoproliferative syndrome, production of anti-dsDNA Abs, lupus nephritis, and accumulation of CD3(+)B220(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) autoreactive T cells (in the peripheral blood and the spleen) were significantly increased in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j RAGE(-/-) mice compared with B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice (respectively p < 0.005, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001). A large proportion of autoreactive T cells from B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice expressed RAGE at their surface. Time course studies of annexin V expression revealed that autoreactive T cells in the spleen of B6-MRL Fas lpr/j-RAGE(-/-) mice exhibited a delay in apoptosis and expressed significantly less activated caspase 3 (39.5 ± 4.3%) than T cells in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice (65.5 ± 5.2%) or wild-type mice (75.3 ± 2.64%) (p = 0.02). We conclude that the deletion of RAGE in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice promotes the accumulation of autoreactive CD3(+)B220(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells, therefore exacerbating lymphoproliferative syndrome, autoimmunity, and organ injury. This suggests that RAGE rescues the apoptosis of T lymphocytes when the death receptor Fas/CD95 is dysfunctional. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most potent independent risk factors for the development of diabetic cerebral vascular disease (CVD). Many evidences suggested that hyperglycemia caused excess free fatty acids, the loss of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, insulin resistance, the prothrombotic state, endothelial dysfunction, the abnormal release of endothelial vasoactivators, vascular smooth muscle dysfunction, oxidative stress, and the downregulation of miRs participated in vessel generation and recovery as well as the balance of endotheliocytes. In turn, these abnormalities, mainly via phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, polyol, hexosamine, protein kinase C activation, and increased generation of advanced glycosylation end products pathway, play an important role in inducing diabetic CVD complication. A deeper comprehension of pathogenesis producing diabetic CVD could offer base for developing new therapeutic ways preventing diabetic CVD complications, therefore, in the paper we mainly reviewed present information about the possible pathogenesis of diabetic CVD complication.
    02/2015; 6(1):54-66. DOI:10.4239/wjd.v6.i1.54
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), histone, and DNA are essential nuclear components involved in the regulation of chromosome structure and function. In addition to their nuclear function, these molecules act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) alone or together when released extracellularly. The synergistic effect of these nuclear DNA-HMGB1-histone complexes as DAMP complexes (nDCs) on immune cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that nDCs limit survival of macrophages (e.g., RAW264.7 and peritoneal macrophages) but not cancer cells (e.g., HCT116, HepG2 and Hepa1-6). nDCs promote production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) release, triggering reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), but not toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and TLR-2, was required for Akt-dependent TNFα release and subsequent cell death following treatment with nDCs. Genetic depletion of RAGE by RNAi, antioxidant N-Acetyl-L-cysteine, and TNFα neutralizing antibody significantly attenuated nDC-induced cell death. These findings provide evidence supporting novel signaling mechanisms linking nDCs and inflammation in macrophage cell death. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2015; 458(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.01.159 · 2.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 1, 2014