Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data. Ann Bot

Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Technical University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda 1349-017 Lisbon, Portugal.
Annals of Botany (Impact Factor: 3.65). 03/2010; 105(5):661-76. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcq030
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUND: A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit irrigation has emerged as a potential strategy to allow crops to withstand mild water stress with little or no decreases of yield, and potentially a positive impact on fruit quality. Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water deficits is fundamental to optimize deficit irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties to those conditions. SCOPE: How the whole plant acclimatizes to water scarcity and how short- and long-distance chemical and hydraulic signals intervene are reviewed. Chemical compounds synthesized in drying roots are shown to act as long-distance signals inducing leaf stomatal closure and/or restricting leaf growth. This explains why some plants endure soil drying without significant changes in shoot water status. The control of plant water potential by stomatal aperture via feed-forward mechanisms is associated with 'isohydric' behaviour in contrast to 'anysohydric' behaviour in which lower plant water potentials are attained. This review discusses differences in this respect between grapevines varieties and experimental conditions. Mild water deficits also exert direct and/or indirect (via the light environment around grape clusters) effects on berry development and composition; a higher content of skin-based constituents (e.g. tannins and anthocyanins) has generally being reported. Regulation under water deficit of genes and proteins of the various metabolic pathways responsible for berry composition and therefore wine quality are reviewed.

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Available from: Olfa Zarrouk, Jan 22, 2014
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    • "This outcome could be interpreted as an adaptive response to limit transpiring surface area. Moreover, slower growth allows plants to divert assimilate energy into protective molecules to combat stress and/or to maintain root growth and improve water uptake (Chaves et al., 2010). In grapevine, drought events occurring during the development of vine structures dampens vine growth (Palliotti et al., 2008, 2014; Poni et al., 1993). "
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have investigated water relationships in grapevines, but the responses to water limitation on individual leaves developed in different shoot positions are scarce in the literature. To begin to fill-in this gap, we examined the adaptive responses of vines at the leaf level to varying amounts of water stress using young hybrid 'Vignoles' in a controlled growth chamber. We found that the reduction in water availability to 40% of daily evapotranspiration limited shoot and leaf growth, affecting leaf number, shoot elongation, and leaf area. After 2 days of water stress we observed young developing leaves (nodes six to eight from the shoot apex) to have drastically reduced stomatal conductance (g S , about 20 mmol H 2 O/m 2 /s) and net photosynthesis (P n , 2 mmol CO 2 /m 2 /s). On the 4th day P n in mature leaves (nodes 9 to 12 from the shoot apex) fell to values below 2 mmol CO 2 /m 2 /s. After 6 days, both P n and g S stabilized at lower values with fluctuations related only to leaf position along the shoot axis. Young leaves revealed substantial enrichment of carbon-13 (13 C) and high water-use efficiency suggesting a higher and faster adaptive capacity to water shortage conditions as compared with mature leaves.
    HortScience: a publication of the American Society for Horticultural Science 10/2015; 50(10):1492-1497. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crop with a great economic impact on the global industry (Chaves et al., 2010; Cramer et al., 2013). A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought, where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperature exert important constraints on yield and quality (Chaves et al., 2010). In order to secure productivity, vineyards can be irrigated. "

    Agricultural Water Management 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.09.023 · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    • "Although Touriga Nacional is considered as adapted to warm climate, reports of its response to water stress are controversial, being classified as anisohydric in some studies (Lovisolo et al., 2010; Costa et al., 2012) or as nearly-isohydric in others (Rodrigues et al., 2012). This different response may depend on the rootstock, climate (namely vapor pressure deficit and temperature) and the intensity and duration of water deficits (Chaves et al., 2010). "
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    DESCRIPTION: • Water stress alters aquaporins expression in Touriga Nacional leaves and roots. • Increasing the root hydraulics and ABA is the first response to water stress. • Leaf temperature and leaf hydraulics responses to stress were delayed in time. • Results support the anisohydric behavior of Touriga Nacional.
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