Long-term renal survival in malignant hypertension

Department of Nephrology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.58). 03/2010; 25(10):3266-72. DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfq143
Source: PubMed


Some studies have shown an improvement in the prognosis of patients with essential malignant hypertension (MHT), but data about long-term outcome and prognostic factors of these patients are scarce.
We performed a single-centre retrospective analysis of 197 patients with MHT, diagnosed in the period 1974-2007.
Incidence of MHT remained stable along the different periods of the study. Renal damage at presentation was common (63% of patients) but renal function improved or remained stable after diagnosis in a majority of patients. The probability of renal survival was 84 and 72% after 5 and 10 years, respectively. Diagnosis during the first period (1974-85) of the study, previous chronic renal impairment, baseline renal function and proteinuria, presence of microhaematuria, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and proteinuria during follow-up were associated with an unfavourable outcome. By multivariate analysis, mean proteinuria during follow-up remained as the only significant risk factor (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.59-4.64). Renal survival for patients with mean proteinuria <0.5 g/24 h was 100 and 95% after 5 and 10 years, respectively. The number of patients who improved or stabilized their renal function significantly increased in the second and third periods of the study (1987-2007).
Renal survival in MHT has improved in recent years. Mean proteinuria during follow-up is a fundamental prognostic factor for renal survival.

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