Evidence of epistasis between Interleukin-1 and Selenoprotein-S with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis
ABSTRACT Objective: Selenoprotein-S (SELS) is involved in the stress response within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and inflammation. Recently, promoter variants in the SELS gene were shown to be associated with plasma levels of interleukin (IL)6, IL1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF). It was hypothesised that these variants could influence rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility and may interact with functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for IL1, IL6 and TNF.
Methods: Genotyping was performed in 988 unrelated healthy controls and 965 patients with RA. Stratified analysis was used to test for interactions. Single gene effects and evidence of epistasis were investigated using the Mantel–Haenszel (M–H) test and the linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based statistic.
Results: No association of SELS −105 genotype and RA susceptibility was detected. Stratification of SELS −105 genotypes by IL1 −511 genotypes showed that the disease risk (comparing AA/GA to GG at the SELS −105 locus) in individuals with the GG/AG genotype at the IL1β −511 locus was significantly lower than that in individuals having the AA genotype at the IL1β −511 locus (odds ratio (OR): 0.9 and 2.3, respectively; p = 0.004 by M–H test). Significant epistasis was also detected using the LD-based statistic (p = <0.001). No interaction was observed between SELS −105 and IL6 or TNF variants.
Conclusion: Our results reveal evidence of strong epistasis in two genes in the IL1 production pathway and highlight the potential importance of gene–gene interactions in the pathogenesis of RA.
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ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is a nutritional trace mineral essential for various aspects of human health that exerts its effects mainly through its incorporation into selenoproteins as the amino acid, selenocysteine. Twenty-five selenoprotein genes have been identified in humans and several selenoproteins are broadly classified as antioxidant enzymes. As progress is made on characterizing the individual members of this protein family, however, it is becoming clear that their properties and functions are quite diverse. This review summarizes recent insights into properties of individual selenoproteins such as tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and regulation of expression. Also discussed are potential roles the different selenoproteins play in human health and disease.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 05/2009; 66(15):2457-78. · 5.62 Impact Factor