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Tanggung Jawab Kantor Lelang Negara, Penjual, Pembeli Dan Balai Lelang Dalam Penjualan Aset Badan Penyehatan Perbankan Nasional (Studi Kasus di Kantor Lelang Negara Medan Kurun Waktu 1999-2000)

Source: OAI

ABSTRACT 0200360 Badan Penyehatan Perbankan Nasional (BPPN) dalam rangka penyehatan perbankan, guna mengembalikan kredit likuiditas melakukan penjualan aset bank dalam penyehatan melalui Kantor Lelang Negara (KLN) Medan mulai tahun 1999. Dalam lelang aset BPPN, barang sering tidak sesuai dengan pengumuman, tidak dapat dikuasai, mengandung cacat, harga rendah yang mengakibatkan pembeli atau pihak lain berkeberatan dan meminta pembatalan lelang ke KLN sedangkan KLN tidak bertanggungjawab atas kebenaran barang dan harga Ielang tidak mengenal pembatalan lelang, Hal-hal tersebut menimbulkan persoalan tanggungjawab dalam pelaksanaan lelang, karena Vendu Reglement Stbl. 1908/189, Vendu Instructie Stbl.l908/190 serta beberapa peraturan pelaksana lelang tidak jelas mengatur tanggung jawab KLN, pembeli, penjual dan balai lelang. Oleh karena itu perlu penelitian mengenai pelaksanaan lelang aset BPPN di KLN Medan kurun waktu 1999-2000, tanggung jawab KLN, penjual, pembeli dan balai lelang dan hambatan serta upaya mengatasinya. Untuk menjawab hal tersebut, makametode penelitian yang dilakukan adalah suatu penelitian yang mengabungkan antara penelitian yuridis normatif dan yuridis sosiologis bercirikan suatu studi kasus, dengan mengunakan data primer dan data skunder, Data primer diperoleh melalui studi lapangan dengan alat pengurnpulan data pedoman wawancara dan pengamatan, sedangkan data skunder diperoleh dan studi kepustakaan. Data dianalisis secara kualitatif yang ditulis secara deskriptif analisis. Berdasarkan penelitian, dalam pelaksanaan penjualan aset BPPN tanggung jawab KLN, penjual, pembeli danbalai lelang dibedakan: 1. Sebelum pelaksanaan lelang, KLN bertanggung jawab melaksanakan permintaan lelang dan bertanggung jawab atas kebenaran formal syarat dokumen lelang dan subjek lelang. Penjual bertanggung jawab atas syarat-syarat/dokumen-dokumen lelang, pengumuman, harga limit, sedangkan pembeli lelang belum mempunyai tanggung jawab. Balai lelang bertanggung jawab atas pra lelang. 2. Saat pelaksanaan lelang dibagi dna tahap yaitu: tabap perjanjian obligatoir dan tahap perjanjian kebendaan. Tahap perjanjian obligatoir terjadi saarpejabat lelang untuk kepentingan penjual menunjuk penawar yang tertinggi dan mencapai harga limit sebagai pembeli. KLN bertanggung jawab melaksanakan lelang, membuat risalah dan menyetorkan hasil lelang, Dalam pembuatan risalah lelang, KLN bertanggung jawab atas kebenaran data dan kebenaran pelaksanaan lelang. KLN melepaskan tanggung-jawab dan keadaan fisik maupun keadaan hukum barang. Pembeli bertanggung-jawab membayar uang hasil lelang, Tahap perjanjian kebendaan atau penyerahan pada penjualan lelang adalah saat beralihnya kepemilikan dari penjual kepada pembeli, Penjual/BPPN menyerahkan barang dan menanggung barang sampai tahap penyerahan, namun tanggung jawab terhadap cacat barang tidak tegas diatur, karena dimungkinkan pengecualian penjual tidak bertanggung jawab alas cacat barang, serta tidak mengakibatkan pembatalan lelang, Tanggung jawab BPPN terhadap barang dalam bentuk tanggung jawab alas keberatan atau gugatan, kurang menjamin kepastian hukum pihak yang bertanggung jawab atas barang, karena kepastian hukumnya masih menunggu hingga terdapat putusan berkekuatan tetap atas keberatan/gugatan tersebut. Perlindungan hukum terhadap pembeli leJang atas barangnya diberikan oleh jurisprudensi Mahkamah Agung Nomor 323/K/Sip/1968, yang menyatakan lelang yang telah dilaksanakan sesuai ketentuan serta dimenangkan oleh pembeli lelang yang beritikad baik tidak dapat dibatalkan dan pembeli lelang wajib diberikan perlindungan hukum. Dalam peJaksanaan lelang terdapat hambatan diantaranya jadual lelang yang tidak pasti, nang jaminan disamaratakan, surat keterangan tanah tidak terbit, harga tidak optimal, keterlambatan risalah lelang, serta tidak adanya sanksi yang berat terhadap lelang yang tidak diadakan melalui KLN: Upaya mengatasi hambatan dilakukan dengan transparansi lelang, koordinasi, lelang sesuai Pasal 6 UUHT penerbitan undang-undang baru, dan perubahan fundamental lelang, In order to restructure banking and to restore credit liquidity, the Indonesian Bank Restructuring Agency (IBRA) selling the restructuring bank's assets through the State Auction Office (KLN) Medan since 1999. However, in the auction of IBRA's assets, there were some difficulties found: goods are not suitable with the auction announcement, goods are not transferable physically, goods have physical defect, goods sold in too low price. Those conditions make the buyer or other parties submit their objection and request for the auction nullification to State Auction Office, whereas the State Auction Office is not responsible for the correctness of the auction goods and its price. The State Auction Office also did not recognized auction mullification. Those situations cause the problem of responsibility, due to the Vendu Reglement of State Gazette (Staatblaad) Number 189 of 1908 and Vendu Instructie of Stb. 1908/190 and other auction regulations are not clearly regulate on responsibilities of the State Auction Office, seller, buyer and Auction House. Based on that, it is necessary to execute research on the execution of the IBRA assets auction in Medan State Auction Office, in the period of 1999 till 2000, responsibility of State Auction Office, seller, buyer and obstacles and how to handle it. To answer those questions, this research used the combination of normative juridical and sociological juridical research with the characteristic of case study. Furthermore, this research used the primary and secondary data. Primary data was obtained through field study using the interview guidance and observation as data collecting tools, whereas the secondary data was obtained through library research. Data was analyzed qualitatively and presented by descriptive analytic. Based on research, in the implementation of IBRA asset auction selling, responsibilities of State Auction Office, seller, buyer and auction house can be distinguished as follows: 1. Prior to auction execution, State Auction Office is responsible to perform auction request and responsible for the formal correctness of auction documents pre-requirement and auction subject. Seller is responsible for auction requirements and auction documents, auction announcement, price limit, whereas the auction buyer has no any responsibility in this stage. Auction house is responsible for there auction stage. 2. Auction execution is divided in two phase, which are: obligatory contract phase and material contract phase. Obligatory contract phase is commenced when the auctioneer, for the interest of seller, appointed the highest bidder and whose reach the limit price as the buyer. State Auction Office is responsible to execute the auction, making the proceeding and deposit the auction payment. In making the auction proceeding, State Auction Office is responsible for the correctness of data and auction execution. State Auction Office waives the responsibility upon the physical and legal condition of the auction goods. Buyer is responsible to pay the auction price. Furthermore, the material contract phase or transfer in auction execution is commenced when the shift of ownership from the seller to the buyer. Buyer/IBRA then transfer the goods and responsible for the goods until the transfer phase, however, responsible upon the physical defect is not clearly regulate, due to there was possibility for exceptional that the buyer is not responsible for the physical defect of goods, and it will not nullify the auction. IBRA is responsible on the objection and claim over the goods, however, that is not giving the legal certainty about who will responsible for goods. For the certainty parties should wait for the decision over the objection or claim. Transfer of movable goods was took place simultaneously with the auction winner appointment. Transfer of immovable goods was took place when the transfer of title of ownership in Land Registrar Office Legal protection for the auction buyer over the goods is given by Supreme Court Jurisprudence Number 323/K/Sip/1986, which stipulated that, auction which has been executed in compliance with the regulation and won by the auction buyer in good faith, could not be nullify and the auction buyer must be legally protected. There were some obstacles in auction execution, which are, uncertain auction schedule, equally same depository payment, land official statement were not issued, price was not optimum, late of auction proceeding, and no adequate sanction for the auction which is executed not through State Auction Office. Those obstacles could be coped by auction transparency, good coordination, auction execution in appropriate with the Article 6 of Security Right Act (UUHT), issuance of new regulation and fundamental change in auction. Prof.Dr. Mariam Darus, SH

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