Transcriptional regulation of histidine biosynthesis genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

Research Center for Women's Diseases, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, Korea.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology (Impact Factor: 1.18). 02/2010; 56(2):178-87. DOI: 10.1139/w09-115
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Corynebacterium glutamicum, a gram-positive bacterium, has been widely used for industrial amino acid production. Corynebacterium glutamicum his genes are located and transcribed in two unlinked loci, hisEG and hisDCB-orf1-orf2-hisHA-impA-hisFI. The latter his operon starts the transcription at the C residue localized 196 bp upstream of the hisD ATG start codon. Our computer-based sequence analysis showed that the region corresponding to the untranslated 5' end of the transcript, named the hisD leader region, displays the typical features of the T-box transcriptional attenuation mechanism. Therefore, expression of the cat reporter gene under the control of the wild-type or mutated hisD leader regions was tested in multi-copy (pProm and pTer series) and in single-copy (pInt series) systems under conditions of sufficient or limited histidine. Our mutational studies led to the conclusion that the CAU histidine specifier and 5'-UGGA-3' sequence in the hisD leader region are required for the hisDCB-orf1-orf2-hisHA-impA-hisFI gene regulation. The cat gene expression from the wild-type leader region was negatively regulated by histidine. However, the cat gene expression from mutated leader regions was irresponsive to the level of histidine in the growth medium. Taken together, we propose that a T-box mediated attenuation mechanism is responsible for the gene expression of the hisDCB-orf1-orf2-hisHA-impA-hisFI operon in C. glutamicum.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (l-alanyl-l-glutamine).
    Current Opinion in Biotechnology 04/2014; 26C:38-44. DOI:10.1016/j.copbio.2013.08.020 · 8.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum belongs to the order Corynebacteriales and is used as a producer of amino acids at industrial scales. Due to its economic importance, gene expression and particularly the regulation of amino acid biosynthesis has been investigated extensively. Applying the high-resolution technique of transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), recently a vast amount of data has been generated that was used to comprehensively analyze the C. glutamicum transcriptome. By analyzing RNA-seq data from a small RNA cDNA library of C. glutamicum, short transcripts in the known transcriptional attenuators sites of the trp operon, the ilvBNC operon and the leuA gene were verified. Furthermore, whole transcriptome RNA-seq data were used to elucidate the transcriptional organization of these three amino acid biosynthesis operons. In addition, we discovered and analyzed the novel attenuator aroR, located upstream of the aroF gene (cg1129). The DAHP synthase encoded by aroF catalyzes the first step in aromatic amino acid synthesis. The AroR leader peptide contains the amino acid sequence motif F-Y-F, indicating a regulatory effect by phenylalanine and tyrosine. Analysis by real-time RT-PCR suggests that the attenuator regulates the transcription of aroF in dependence of the cellular amount of tRNA loaded with phenylalanine when comparing a phenylalanine-auxotrophic C. glutamicum mutant fed with limiting and excess amounts of a phenylalanine-containing dipeptide. Additionally, the very interesting finding was made that all analyzed attenuators are leaderless transcripts.
    Journal of Biotechnology 11/2014; 190:55-63. DOI:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2014.05.033 · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding the evolution of enzyme function after gene duplication has been a major goal of molecular biologists, biochemists and evolutionary biologists alike, for almost half a century. In contrast, the impact that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has had on the evolution of enzyme specialization and the assembly of metabolic networks has just started to being investigated. Traditionally, evolutionary studies of enzymes have been limited to either the function of enzymes in vitro, or to sequence variability at the population level, where in almost all cases the starting conceptual framework embraces gene duplication as the mechanism responsible for the appearance of genetic redundancy. Very recently, we merged comparative phylogenomics, detection of selection signals, enzyme kinetics, X-ray crystallography and computational molecular dynamics, to characterize the sub-functionalization process of an amino acid biosynthetic enzyme prompted by an episode of HGT in bacteria. Some of the evolutionary implications of these functional studies, including a proposed model of enzyme specialization independent of gene duplication, are developed in this commentary.
    09/2013; 3(5):e26439. DOI:10.4161/mge.26439