Temperament at 5 years of age predicts amygdala and orbitofrontal volume in the right hemisphere in adolescence.
ABSTRACT It was of interest to determine if hemispheric differences in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) volume would be related to behavioral inhibition observed in a peer-play setting. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out in 23 individuals (19 males and 4 females) at an average age of 14.87+/-1.14 years who were either at high or low risk for alcohol dependence. All subjects had previously been evaluated in a preschool peer play paradigm (5.03+/-0.78 years) assessing behavioral inhibition. Region of interest measures were traced for the OFC and the amygdala, and confirmed with voxel based morphometry. Behavioral inhibition, a behavioral tendency that often occurs in a novel setting in reaction to strangers, includes the following: greater time spent next to the mother, greater time staring at another child, and longer latency to begin play with another child. A significant relationship was seen between greater right OFC volume and indicators of behavioral inhibition including greater time spent proximal to their mother and greater time staring at the other child. Also, larger amygdala volume was associated with more time spent proximal to the mother. Behavioral control, including both over- and under-control, is likely to be subserved by neural circuitry associated with emotion regulation including the right OFC and the amygdala.
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ABSTRACT: Micrometastasis are defined by the existence of cells or groups of cells in target organs. In the particular cas of colon cancers, although lymph node involvement is frequent, metastatic medullary involvement (while rarely at the origin of identified metastasis) can also be observed. Furthermore, micrometastatics cells can be identified in the circulating blood. This research relies on recent technics of immunocytochemistry with image analysis or molecular biology technics (generally PCR or RT-PCR). It is essential to have a specific reliable marker of metastatic cells. The prognostic value of identifying micrometastasis in organs also remains to be defined.Journal de Chirurgie 07/2002; 139(3):141-8. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We found previously in a lesion study that the right-sided sector of the ventromedial prefrontal cortices (VMPCs) was critical for social/emotional functioning and decision-making, whereas the left side appeared to be less important. It so happened that all but one of the subjects in that study were men, and the one woman did not fit the pattern very well. This prompted a follow-up investigation, in which we explored the following question: Does gender play a role in the development of defects in social conduct, emotional functioning and decision-making, following unilateral VMPC damage? We culled from our Patient Registry same-sex pairs of men or women patients who had comparable unilateral VMPC damage in either the left or right hemisphere. Two male pairs and one female pair were formed, and we included two additional women with unilateral right VMPC damage (8 patients in all). The domains of measurement covered social conduct, emotional processing and personality, and decision-making. We found a systematic effect of gender on the pattern of left-right asymmetry in VMPC. In men, there were severe defects following unilateral right VMPC damage, but not following left-sided damage. In women, there were defects following unilateral left VMPC damage; following right-sided damage, however, defects were mild or absent. The findings suggest that men and women may use different strategies to solve similar problems--e.g. men may use a more holistic, gestalt-type strategy, and women may use a more analytic, verbally-mediated strategy. Such differences could reflect asymmetric, gender-related differences in the neurobiology of left and right VMPC sectors.Brain 01/2006; 128(Pt 12):2872-81. · 9.46 Impact Factor