Rapid testing for group B streptococcus during labour: a test accuracy study with evaluation of acceptability and cost-effectiveness

University of Birmingham, Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Birmingham Women's Hospital, UK.
09/2009; DOI: 10.3310/hta13420
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and optical immunoassay (OIA) rapid tests for maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonisation at labour.

DESIGN: A test accuracy study was used to determine the accuracy of rapid tests for GBS colonisation of women in labour. Acceptability of testing to participants was evaluated through a questionnaire administered after delivery, and acceptability to staff through focus groups. A decision-analytic model was constructed to assess the cost-effectiveness of various screening strategies. SETTING: Two large obstetric units in the UK.

PARTICIPANTS: Women booked for delivery at the participating units other than those electing for a Caesarean delivery.

INTERVENTIONS: Vaginal and rectal swabs were obtained at the onset of labour and the results of vaginal and rectal PCR and OIA (index) tests were compared with the reference standard of enriched culture of combined vaginal and rectal swabs.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The accuracy of the index tests, the relative accuracies of tests on vaginal and rectal swabs and whether test accuracy varied according to the presence or absence of maternal risk factors. RESULTS: PCR was significantly more accurate than OIA for the detection of maternal GBS colonisation. Combined vaginal or rectal swab index tests were more sensitive than either test considered individually [combined swab sensitivity for PCR 84% (95% CI 79-88%); vaginal swab 58% (52-64%); rectal swab 71% (66-76%)]. The highest sensitivity for PCR came at the cost of lower specificity [combined specificity 87% (95% CI 85-89%); vaginal swab 92% (90-94%); rectal swab 92% (90-93%)]. The sensitivity and specificity of rapid tests varied according to the presence or absence of maternal risk factors, but not consistently. PCR results were determinants of neonatal GBS colonisation, but maternal risk factors were not. Overall levels of acceptability for rapid testing amongst participants were high. Vaginal swabs were more acceptable than rectal swabs. South Asian women were least likely to have participated in the study and were less happy with the sampling procedure and with the prospect of rapid testing as part of routine care. Midwives were generally positive towards rapid testing but had concerns that it might lead to overtreatment and unnecessary interference in births. Modelling analysis revealed that the most cost-effective strategy was to provide routine intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) to all women without screening. Removing this strategy, which is unlikely to be acceptable to most women and midwives, resulted in screening, based on a culture test at 35-37 weeks' gestation, with the provision of antibiotics to all women who screened positive being most cost-effective, assuming that all women in premature labour would receive IAP. The results were sensitive to very small increases in costs and changes in other assumptions. Screening using a rapid test was not cost-effective based on its current sensitivity, specificity and cost.

CONCLUSIONS: Neither rapid test was sufficiently accurate to recommend it for routine use in clinical practice. IAP directed by screening with enriched culture at 35-37 weeks' gestation is likely to be the most acceptable cost-effective strategy, although it is premature to suggest the implementation of this strategy at present.

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    ABSTRACT: Vulval cancer causes 3-5% of all gynaecological malignancies and requires surgical removal and inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy (IFL). Complications affect > 50% of patients, including groin wound infection, lymphoedema and cellulitis. A sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first groin node with the highest probability of malignancy. SLN biopsy would be useful if it could accurately identify patients in whom cancer has spread to the groin, without removing all groin nodes. SLNs can be identified by isosulfan blue dye and/or technetium-99 ((99m)Tc) radioactive tracer during lymphoscintigraphy. The blue dye/(99m)Tc procedure only detects SLN, not metastases - this requires histological examination, which can include ultrastaging and staining with conventional haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or immunohistochemistry. To determine the test accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the SLN biopsy with (99m)Tc and/or blue dye compared with IFL or clinical follow-up for test negatives in vulval cancer, through systematic reviews and economic evaluation. Standard medical databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index and The Cochrane Library, medical search gateways, reference lists of review articles and included studies were searched to January 2011. For accuracy and effectiveness, standard methods were used and reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Searches were to January 2011, with no language restrictions. Meta-analyses were carried out with Meta-Disc version 1.4 (Javier Zamora, Madrid, Spain) for accuracy; none was appropriate for effectiveness. The economic evaluation from a NHS perspective used a decision-tree model in DATA TreeAge Pro Healthcare 2001 (TreeAge Software, Inc., Williamstown, MA, USA). Six options (blue dye with H&E, blue dye with ultrastaging, (99m)Tc with H&E, (99m)Tc with ultrastaging, blue dye/(99m)Tc with H&E, blue dye/(99m)Tc with ultrastaging) were compared with IFL. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. For accuracy, of the 26 included studies, most evaluated (99m)Tc/blue dye combined. Four studies had clinical follow-up only for test negatives and five had clinical follow-up for all and IFL for test negatives. Numbers with no SLN found were difficult to distinguish from those with negative SLN biopsies. The largest group of 11 studies using (99m)Tc/blue dye, ultrastaging and immunohistochemistry had a pooled sensitivity of 95.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 91.5% to 98.1%] and a specificity of 100% (95% CI 99.0% to 100%). Mean SLN detection rates were 94.6% for (99m)Tc, 68.7% for blue dye and 97.7% for both. One study measured global health status quality of life (QoL) and found no difference between SLN biopsy and IFL. One patient preference evaluation showed that 66% preferred IFL rather than a 5% false-negative rate from SLN biopsy. For effectiveness, of 14,038 references, one randomised controlled trial, three case-control studies and 13 case series were found. Approximately 50% died from vulval cancer and 50% from other causes during follow-ups. Recurrences were in the ratio of approximately 4 : 2 : 1 vulval, groin and distant, with more recurrences in node-positive patients. No studies reported QoL. For cost per death averted, IFL was less costly and more effective than strategies using SLN biopsy. For morbidity-free survival and long-term morbidity-free survival, (99m)Tc with ultrastaging was most cost-effective. Strategies with blue dye only and H&E only were never cost-effective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for (99m)Tc with ultrastaging compared with IFL was £4300 per case of morbidity-free survival and £7100 per long-term morbidity-free survival. The main limitations of this study include the lack of good-quality evidence on accuracy, effectiveness and QoL. A large project such as this takes time to publish, so the most recent studies are not included. A sensitive and specific combined metastatic SLN detection test and information on generic QoL in vulval cancer is urgently required. The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
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    ABSTRACT: Group B streptococcal infections are the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in newborns. A rapid and reliable method for the detection of this pathogen at the time of delivery is needed for the early treatment of neonates. Isothermal amplification techniques such as recombinase polymerase amplification have advantages relative to PCR in terms of the speed of reaction and simplicity.METHODS: We studied the clinical performance of recombinase polymerase amplification for the screening of group B streptococci in vaginal/anal samples from 50 pregnant women. We also compared the limit of detection and the analytical specificity of this isothermal assay to real-time PCR (RT-PCR).RESULTS: Compared to RT-PCR, the recombinase polymerase amplification assay showed a clinical sensitivity of 96% and a clinical specificity of 100%. The limit of detection was 98 genome copies and the analytical specificity was 100% for a panel of 15 bacterial and/or fungal strains naturally found in the vaginal/anal flora. Time-to-result for the recombinase polymerase amplification assay was <20 min compared to 45 min for the RT-PCR assay; a positive sample could be detected as early as 8 min.CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the potential of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay as a clinically useful molecular diagnostic tool that is simple and faster than PCR/RT-PCR. Recombinase polymerase amplification offers great potential for nucleic acid-based diagnostics at the point of care.
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