Validation of a database on acrylamide for use in epidemiological studies.
ABSTRACT Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, was detected in various heat-treated foods such as French fries and potato crisps. Recently, positive associations have been found between dietary acrylamide intakes, as estimated with a food frequency questionnaire using an acrylamide database, and cancer risk in some epidemiological studies. As acrylamide levels vary considerably within the same type of foods, a validation study was performed to investigate whether use of an acrylamide food database containing calculated mean acrylamide content, based on extensive sampling and chemical analysis of Dutch foods (several samples per food), can classify subjects with respect to true acrylamide intake.
We used the data from a 24-h duplicate diet study. The acrylamide content of 39 Dutch 24-h duplicate diets collected in 2004 was estimated using the mean acrylamide levels of foods available from the database and the menu list, on which the participants of the duplicate diet study had listed the amounts of individual foods and drinks in household units. Next, the acrylamide content of the total duplicate diets was analytically measured and correlated to the estimated acrylamide contents.
The Spearman's correlation coefficient between chemically determined acrylamide content and the calculated acrylamide content of the duplicate diets was 0.82 (P<0.001).
This study indicates that it is possible to classify subjects with respect to acrylamide intake if mean instead of actual content of each food is applied. The database can therefore be applied in epidemiological studies on acrylamide intake and cancer risk, such as the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer.
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Article: Dietary acrylamide and human cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Low levels of acrylamide have been found in several foods cooked at high temperatures. While there is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of acrylamide in experimental animals, the few epidemiologic studies conducted to date on occupational and dietary exposure to acrylamide have found no consistent evidence of association with human cancer risk. Using data from an integrated network of Italian and Swiss hospital-based case-control studies, we analyzed the relation between dietary acrylamide intake and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx (749 cases, 1,772 controls), esophagus (395 cases, 1,066 controls), large bowel (1,394 cases of colon, 886 cases of rectal cancer, 4,765 controls), larynx (527 cases, 1,297 controls), breast (2,900 cases, 3,122 controls), ovary (1,031 cases, 2,411 controls) and prostate (1,294 cases, 1,451 controls). All the studies included incident, histologically confirmed cancer cases and controls admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute nonneoplastic conditions. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) using multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for energy intake and other major covariates of interest. The ORs for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake were 1.12 (95% CI = 0.76-1.66) for cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx, 1.10 (95% CI = 0.65-1.86) for esophageal, 0.97 (95% CI = 0.80-1.18) for colorectal, 1.23 (95% CI = 0.80-1.90) for laryngeal, 1.06 (95% CI = 0.88-1.28) for breast, 0.97 (95% CI = 0.73-1.31) for ovarian and 0.92 (95% CI = 0.69-1.23) for prostate cancer. None of the trend in risk was significant. This uniquely large and comprehensive data set does not show any consistent association between intake of acrylamide and the risk of breast and several other common cancers.International Journal of Cancer 02/2006; 118(2):467-71. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There has been considerable discourse about whether exposure to acrylamide in foods could increase the risk of human cancer. Acrylamide is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and animal studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of tumors in rats exposed to very high levels. Still, epidemiologic data of the effect of dietary acrylamide remain scant. We have undertaken the first prospective study of acrylamide in food and risk of colon and rectal cancers using prospective data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. The cohort comprised 61,467 women at baseline between 1987 and 1990. Through 2003, the cohort contributed 823,072 person-years, and 504 cases of colon and 237 of rectal cancer occurred. Mean intake of acrylamide through diet was 24.6 mug/day (Q25-70 = 18.7-29.9). Coffee (44%), fried potato products (16%), crisp bread (15%) and other breads (12%) were the greatest contributors. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no association between estimated acrylamide intake and colorectal cancer. Comparing extreme quintiles, the adjusted relative risks (95% CI; p for trend) were for colorectal cancer 0.9 (0.7-1.3; p = 0.80), colon cancer 0.9 (0.6-1.4; p = 0.83) and rectal cancer 1.0 (0.6-1.8; p = 0.77). Furthermore, intake of specific food items with elevated acrylamide (e.g., coffee, crisp bread and fried potato products) was not associated with cancer risk. In this large prospective study, we found no evidence that dietary intake of acrylamide is associated with cancers of the colon or rectum. Epidemiologic studies play an important role in assessing the possible health effects of acrylamide intake through food.International Journal of Cancer 02/2006; 118(1):169-73. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acrylamide exposure has been related to an increased incidence of oral and thyroid tumors in animal studies. In 1986, 120,852 persons (aged 55-69 years) were included in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Dietary acrylamide intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and was based on chemical analysis of all relevant Dutch foods. Hazard ratios were adjusted for smoking and other confounders. After 16.3 years of follow-up, there were 101, 83, 180, and 66 cases of oral cavity, oro-hypopharynx, larynx, and thyroid cancer, respectively. Average daily dietary acrylamide intake was 21.8 microg (standard deviation, 12.1). Dietary acrylamide intake was not associated with increased risk of oral cavity (hazard ratio (HR) per 10-microg intake/day = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73, 1.10), oro-hypopharynx (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.03), larynx (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.21), or thyroid (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.27) cancer. For nonsmokers, hazard ratios were not increased either. Dietary acrylamide was statistically significantly associated with increased risk of oral cavity cancer in female nonsmokers, but case numbers were small. Dietary acrylamide intake was not positively associated with risk of head-neck and thyroid cancer, except with oral cavity cancer risk for female nonsmokers. A negative association for males was indicated.American journal of epidemiology 09/2009; 170(7):873-84. · 5.59 Impact Factor